Gynecologic Cancers: Stages

There are four stages in cervical cancer.

Stage I: Stage I carcinoma is strictly confined to the cervix; extension to the uterine corpus should be disregarded. The diagnosis of both Stages IA1 and IA2 should be based on microscopic examination of removed tissue, preferably a cone, which must include the entire lesion.

Stage II: Stage II carcinoma that extends beyond the cervix, but does not extend into the pelvic wall. The carcinoma involves the vagina, but not as far as the lower third.

Stage III: Stage III carcinoma that has extended into the pelvic sidewall. On rectal examination, there is no cancer-free space between the tumor and the pelvic sidewall. The tumor involves the lower third of the vagina.

Stage IV: Stage IV carcinoma that has extended beyond the true pelvis or has clinically involved the mucosa of the bladder and/or rectum.

Stages of Ovarian Cancer

Stage I

The cancer is only within the ovary or fallopian tube. It has not spread to organs and tissues in the abdomen or pelvis, lymph nodes, or to distant sites.

Stage II

The cancer is in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to other organs (such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, bladder, the sigmoid colon, or the rectum) within the pelvis. It has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage III

The cancer is in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes, and one or both of the following are present:

§  has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen

§  has spread to lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen

Stage IV

This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. In this stage the cancer has spread to the inside of the spleen, liver, lungs, or other organs located outside the peritoneal cavity.

Stages of Endometrial Cancer

Stage I

T1, N0, M0: The cancer is only growing in the body of the uterus. It may also be growing into the glands of the cervix, but is not growing into the supporting connective tissue of the cervix. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage II

T2, N0, M0: The cancer has spread from the body of the uterus and is growing into the supporting connective tissue of the cervix. The cancer has not spread outside of the uterus. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage III

T3, N0, M0: Either the cancer has spread outside of the uterus or into nearby tissues in the pelvic area.

Stage IV

The cancer has spread to the inner surface of the urinary bladder or the rectum (lower part of the large intestine), to lymph nodes in the groin, and/or to distant organs, such as the bones, omentum or lungs.

Stages of Vaginal Cancer

Stage I (T1, N0, M0): The cancer has grown through the top layer of cells but it has not grown out of the vagina and into nearby structures (T1). It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0).

Stage II (T2, N0, M0): The cancer has spread to the connective tissues next to the vagina but has not spread to the wall of the pelvis or to other organs nearby (T2). (The pelvis is the internal cavity that contains the internal female reproductive organs, rectum, bladder, and parts of the large intestine.) It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0).

Stage III: Either of the following:

T3, any N, M0: The cancer has spread to the wall of the pelvis (T3). It may (or may not) have spread to nearby lymph nodes (any N), but it has not spread to distant sites (M0).

There are four stages in cervical cancer.

Stage I: Stage I carcinoma is strictly confined to the cervix; extension to the uterine corpus should be disregarded. The diagnosis of both Stages IA1 and IA2 should be based on microscopic examination of removed tissue, preferably a cone, which must include the entire lesion.

Stage II: Stage II carcinoma that extends beyond the cervix, but does not extend into the pelvic wall. The carcinoma involves the vagina, but not as far as the lower third.

Stage III: Stage III carcinoma that has extended into the pelvic sidewall. On rectal examination, there is no cancer-free space between the tumor and the pelvic sidewall. The tumor involves the lower third of the vagina.

Stage IV: Stage IV carcinoma that has extended beyond the true pelvis or has clinically involved the mucosa of the bladder and/or rectum.

Stages of Ovarian Cancer

Stage I

The cancer is only within the ovary or fallopian tube. It has not spread to organs and tissues in the abdomen or pelvis, lymph nodes, or to distant sites.

Stage II

The cancer is in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to other organs (such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, bladder, the sigmoid colon, or the rectum) within the pelvis. It has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage III

The cancer is in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes, and one or both of the following are present:

§  has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen

§  has spread to lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen

Stage IV

This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. In this stage the cancer has spread to the inside of the spleen, liver, lungs, or other organs located outside the peritoneal cavity.

Stages of Endometrial Cancer

Stage I

T1, N0, M0: The cancer is only growing in the body of the uterus. It may also be growing into the glands of the cervix, but is not growing into the supporting connective tissue of the cervix. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage II

T2, N0, M0: The cancer has spread from the body of the uterus and is growing into the supporting connective tissue of the cervix. The cancer has not spread outside of the uterus. The cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

Stage III

T3, N0, M0: Either the cancer has spread outside of the uterus or into nearby tissues in the pelvic area.

Stage IV

The cancer has spread to the inner surface of the urinary bladder or the rectum (lower part of the large intestine), to lymph nodes in the groin, and/or to distant organs, such as the bones, omentum or lungs.

Stages of Vaginal Cancer

Stage I (T1, N0, M0): The cancer has grown through the top layer of cells but it has not grown out of the vagina and into nearby structures (T1). It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0).

Stage II (T2, N0, M0): The cancer has spread to the connective tissues next to the vagina but has not spread to the wall of the pelvis or to other organs nearby (T2). (The pelvis is the internal cavity that contains the internal female reproductive organs, rectum, bladder, and parts of the large intestine.) It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0).

Stage III: Either of the following:

T3, any N, M0: The cancer has spread to the wall of the pelvis (T3). It may (or may not) have spread to nearby lymph nodes (any N), but it has not spread to distant sites (M0).

  • stage I Gynecologic Cancer
  • stage II Gynecologic Cancer
  • stage III Gynecologic Cancer
  • stage IV Gynecologic Cancer
  • Contraindications and Precautions to Vaccination

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