Gynecologic Cancers: Types

There are four types of cervical cancer. Out of these four two are the main types of cervical cancer.

Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer - eight out of 10 (80%) cervical cancers are diagnosed as squamous cell. Squamous cell cancers are composed of the flat cells that cover the surface of the cervix and often begin where the ecto cervix joins the endo cervix.

Adenocarcinoma Cervical Cancer – more than one in 10 cervical cancers are diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (15 - 20%). The cancer develops in the glandular cells which line the cervical canal. This type of cancer can be more difficult to detect with cervical screening tests because it develops within the cervical canal. Adenosquamous cancers are tumors that contain both squamous and glandular cancer cells. Other rare types of cervical cancer can include clear cell, small cell undifferentiated, lymphomas and sarcomas.

Metastatic Cervical Cancer- This is the cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Mixed Cervical Cancer - Occasionally, cervical cancer has features of both squamous cell cervical cancer and adenocarcinoma cervical cancer.

Types of ovarian cancer

Type 1: Epithelial ovarian cancer This is the most common type of ovarian cancer and occurs in around nine out of every 10 cases. The cancer arises from the cells that line or cover the ovaries.

Type 2 : Primary peritoneal cancer Primary peritoneal cancer is similar to epithelial ovarian cancer and is usually treated in the same way. However, it does not originate in the ovaries but in the lining of the peritoneum, which means even women who have had their ovaries removed can develop this type of ovarian cancer. Find out more about primary peritoneal cancer.

Type 3 : Germ cell tumours About five per cent of ovarian cancers are germ cell tumours - that is around one in 20 cases. The cancer arises in the cells that form eggs within the ovaries, and tend to be found in younger women. There are a number of different subtypes of germ cell tumour, which means each subtype is quite rare. Treatment should take place at a centre with expertise in dealing with this particular type of ovarian cancer. When treated by experts, they are normally curable.

Type 4 : Sex cord stromal cell tumours  Sex cord stromal cell tumours account for less than five per cent of ovarian cancer cases. They arise from the connective cells that hold the ovaries together and produce the female hormones.

Types of Endometrial cancer

Grades 1 and 2 endometrioid cancers are type 1 endometrial cancersType 1 cancers are usually not very aggressive and do not spread to other tissues quickly. Type 1 endometrial cancers are thought to be caused by excess estrogen. They sometimes develop from atypical hyperplasia, an abnormal overgrowth of cells in the endometrium .

A small number of endometrial cancers are type 2 endometrial cancer . Type 2 cancers are more likely to grow and spread outside the uterus, they have a poorer outlook .Type 2 cancers include all endometrial carcinomas that aren’t type 1, such as papillary serous carcinoma, clear-cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma.

Uterine carcinosarcoma (CS) starts in the endometrium and has features of both endometrial carcinoma and sarcoma. In the past, CS was considered a type of uterine sarcoma, but doctors now believe that CS is a carcinoma that is abnormal and so no longer looks much like the cells it came from.

Types of Vaginal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers begin in the squamous cells that make up the epithelial lining of the vagina. These cancers are more common in the upper area of the vagina near the cervix. Squamous cell cancers of the vagina often develop slowly.

Adenocarcinoma Cancers that begin in gland cells are called adenocarcinomas. About 15 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinomas. The usual type of vaginal adenocarcinoma typically develops in women older than 50

There are four types of cervical cancer. Out of these four two are the main types of cervical cancer.

Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer - eight out of 10 (80%) cervical cancers are diagnosed as squamous cell. Squamous cell cancers are composed of the flat cells that cover the surface of the cervix and often begin where the ecto cervix joins the endo cervix.

Adenocarcinoma Cervical Cancer – more than one in 10 cervical cancers are diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (15 - 20%). The cancer develops in the glandular cells which line the cervical canal. This type of cancer can be more difficult to detect with cervical screening tests because it develops within the cervical canal. Adenosquamous cancers are tumors that contain both squamous and glandular cancer cells. Other rare types of cervical cancer can include clear cell, small cell undifferentiated, lymphomas and sarcomas.

Metastatic Cervical Cancer- This is the cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Mixed Cervical Cancer - Occasionally, cervical cancer has features of both squamous cell cervical cancer and adenocarcinoma cervical cancer.

Types of ovarian cancer

Type 1: Epithelial ovarian cancer This is the most common type of ovarian cancer and occurs in around nine out of every 10 cases. The cancer arises from the cells that line or cover the ovaries.

Type 2 : Primary peritoneal cancer Primary peritoneal cancer is similar to epithelial ovarian cancer and is usually treated in the same way. However, it does not originate in the ovaries but in the lining of the peritoneum, which means even women who have had their ovaries removed can develop this type of ovarian cancer. Find out more about primary peritoneal cancer.

Type 3 : Germ cell tumours About five per cent of ovarian cancers are germ cell tumours - that is around one in 20 cases. The cancer arises in the cells that form eggs within the ovaries, and tend to be found in younger women. There are a number of different subtypes of germ cell tumour, which means each subtype is quite rare. Treatment should take place at a centre with expertise in dealing with this particular type of ovarian cancer. When treated by experts, they are normally curable.

Type 4 : Sex cord stromal cell tumours  Sex cord stromal cell tumours account for less than five per cent of ovarian cancer cases. They arise from the connective cells that hold the ovaries together and produce the female hormones.

Types of Endometrial cancer

Grades 1 and 2 endometrioid cancers are type 1 endometrial cancersType 1 cancers are usually not very aggressive and do not spread to other tissues quickly. Type 1 endometrial cancers are thought to be caused by excess estrogen. They sometimes develop from atypical hyperplasia, an abnormal overgrowth of cells in the endometrium .

A small number of endometrial cancers are type 2 endometrial cancer . Type 2 cancers are more likely to grow and spread outside the uterus, they have a poorer outlook .Type 2 cancers include all endometrial carcinomas that aren’t type 1, such as papillary serous carcinoma, clear-cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma.

Uterine carcinosarcoma (CS) starts in the endometrium and has features of both endometrial carcinoma and sarcoma. In the past, CS was considered a type of uterine sarcoma, but doctors now believe that CS is a carcinoma that is abnormal and so no longer looks much like the cells it came from.

 

Types of Vaginal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers begin in the squamous cells that make up the epithelial lining of the vagina. These cancers are more common in the upper area of the vagina near the cervix. Squamous cell cancers of the vagina often develop slowly.

Adenocarcinoma Cancers that begin in gland cells are called adenocarcinomas. About 15 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinomas. The usual type of vaginal adenocarcinoma typically develops in women older than 50

  • Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer
  • Germ cell tumours
  • Type 1 endometrial cancers
  • Endocervical Curettage
  • Colposcopy
  • Biopsy

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