Host Defenses Against Emerging Infectious Diseases

For preventing infectious diseases the human body has several general mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are referred to as nonspecific defenses because they operate against a wide range of pathogens. Some of the other mechanisms are referred to as specific defenses because they target particular pathogens and pathogen-infected cells.

Flu Vaccine can be defined as a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a flu disease. Flu vaccination by injection, commonly known as the "flu jab" is available every year on the for adults (and some children) at risk of flu and its complications. For improving vaccine immunogenicity adjuvants are used. Vaccine Adjuvants – It can be defined as a component which potentiates the immune system and accelerates the immune responses to an antigen.These components act to induce, prolong, and enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens.  Aluminum salts are the only licensed adjuvant in the United States, but the combination of these salts with inactivated influenza A/H5N1 antigens has had little effect on seroresponses. Several oil-in-water adjuvants, including MF59 and AS03, have significantly enhanced immune responses in healthy adult vaccine recipients to inactivated influenza A/H5N1.

  • Nonspecific mechanisms
  • Specific mechanisms of host resistance
  • Immunity
  • Vaccination

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