Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity  These reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. They are classified in four groups after the proposal ofP. G. H. Gell and Robin Coombs in 1963. 

The type of hypersensitivity exemplified by the tuberculin reaction,which (as opposed to immediate hypersensitivity) takes 12 to 48 hours to develop and which can be transferred by lymphocytes but notby serum. Delayed hypersensitivity can be induced by most viral infections, many bacterial infections, all mycotic infections, and a fewprotozoal infection (leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis). The scope of the term is sometimes expanded to cover all aspects of cellmediated immunity including contact dermatitis, granulomatous reactions, and allograft rejection.

  • Type I hypersensitivity
  • Type III hypersensitivity
  • Type 4 hypersensitivity
  • type II hypersensitivity

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