Immunology and Genetic Features

In an infected stage, host uses two strategies to deal with it i.e. by reducing pathogen impact through which a tolerant host regains fitness or by eliminating the pathogen by which the resistant host can regain fitness. If the host is not able to tolerate or reduce the pathogenic burden, he or she is more susceptible to the infection.


Influenza is give rise to acute infection in host body and results in commencement of cascade of immune reactions in almost every part of immune systems. Innate immunity is precondition for the adaptive immune response. Adaptive immunity need few days for response but is effective as it establish a memory response along with eradicating the virus. Influenza virus carries (-) stranded RNA as genetic material, 8 segments of viral RNA are observed in a virion. These segments which are made up of four nucleotides A, U, G, C, have the information required for making new virus particles. These nucleotides are responsible for the genetic code.


  • Virus Structure Organisation
  • Genome Organisation
  • Influenza cycle in animals and humans
  • Host Pathogenic Interaction
  • Maternal Immunization
  • Viral Proteins

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