Infection and Immunity

Immunology is the branch of science concerned with the various aspects related to immune system, innate and acquired immunity and immunology also deals with laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies. Microbiology is the branch of science dealing with the study of various microorganisms. Microbiology involves the study of their structure and various physical, chemical and biological characteristics pertaining to their capability to cause a disease. Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., visually, using a microscope, growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include Microscopy, Culture, Immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, Western blot, precipitation tests, and complement fixation tests) and Nucleic acid/ Non-nucleic acid –based identification methods. Sub-types of diagnoses include: Clinical, Laboratory, Radiology, Principal and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the infection in any part of the body. Examples include Biomarkers/ ELISA test/ Chest X ray/ Skin biopsy/ Tympanometry and Tympanocentesis. 

Hepatitis C:

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this infection scarring of liver starts in the initial stage leads ultimately to liver cirrhosis. It is spread by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, and transfusions. Hepatitis C virus infection can last a lifetime and lead to serious liver problems, including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.

Human Papillomavirus:

A genus of DNA-containing viruses including the papillomavirus and wart viruses of humans and other animals. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. Genital Human Papillomavirus infection is primarily transmitted by genital contact sexually transmitted infection, usually (but not necessarily) through sexual intercourse.


STD stands for sexually transmitted Diseases or also known as Sexually transmitted infections. These are the infections commonly spread by sex (vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex). These infections don’t cause any symptoms which causes great risk. Some of the common example of STDs are: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Herpes, Scabies, Hepatitis B & C, etc.

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