Influences of Other Diseases on Cataract and Refractive Conditions

Refractive errors are very common nowadays but some people having certain disorders are more prone to these refractive conditions as compared to normal people. These disorders are known as increased risk conditions. Cataracts may be hereditary or secondary to a noxious intrauterine event (e.g., rubella). Cataracts associated with a systemic or genetic illness may not occur until the second or third decade (e.g., cataracts associated with retinitis pigmentosa). Even age-related cataracts, generally thought to be due to multiple insults accumulated over many years, have a genetic component, making certain individuals more vulnerable to the environmental insults. It seems likely that when mutations in crystalline or other lens proteins are sufficient in and of themselves to cause protein aggregation they usually result in congenital cataract, while if they merely increase susceptibility to environmental insults, such as light, hyperglycaemic, or oxidative damage, they might contribute to age-related cataract.

There are diseases that influence both the cataract and refractive conditions. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract is an inherited condition that affects the nervous system and the eyes. Myotonic Dystrophy is a tri-nucleotide repeat, autosomal dominant disease characterized by an inability to relax (Myotonic) and muscle wasting (muscular dystrophy). In Wilson disease, the liver does not filter copper correctly and copper builds up in the liver, brain, eyes, and other organs. Homocystinuria is a disorder caused by excess of the methionine derived amino acid homocysteine. Excess homocysteine damages connective tissue leading to problems in the eyes. Immunodeficiencies disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Dry eye syndrome is a general term that describes the state of the front of the eye in response to a breakdown in the natural layer of tears called the tear film. Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea. This may cause inflammation, infection and/or ulceration of the eye. Uveitis in herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular disease is usually associated with corneal stromal disease.

  • Genetic Illnesses of Cataract
  • Myotonic Dystrophy
  • Wilson
  • Homocystinuria and Galactosemia
  • Autoimmune disorders and Immunodeficiency Conditions
  • Persistent dry eyes andf Unstable Vision
  • Keratoconus and Keratitis
  • Uveitis and Herpes Simplex

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