Influenza Vaccines : Safety and Effectiveness

Annual influenza vaccine is the best way to reduce your chances of getting the seasonal flu and spreading it to others. Vaccines work by spurring the immune system into action. The effectiveness of a vaccine depends on how vigorously the immune system responds to it. If someone have a weak immune system to begin with, a vaccine may just not work as well. Many chronic illnesses can weaken a body’s defenses.  The vaccines are generally safe. In children fever occurs in between 5 to 10%, as may muscle pains or feeling tired. In certain years, the vaccine causes Guillain Barre syndrome in older people in about one per million doses. It should not be given to those with severe allergies to eggs or to previous versions of the vaccine. They come in both inactive and weakened viral forms. The inactive version should be used those who are pregnant. They come in forms that are injected into a muscle, sprayed into the nose, or injected into the middle layer of the skin.

Efficacy of vaccines is the extent to which it reduces risk of disease under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness, the observed reduction in risk after the vaccine is put into use. Influenza vaccines generally show high efficacy, as measured by the antibody production in animal models or vaccinated people. However, studies on the effectiveness of flu vaccines in the real world are difficult; vaccines may be imperfectly matched, virus prevalence varies widely between years, and influenza is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses.Studies on live vaccines have very limited data, but these preparations may be more effective than inactivated vaccines.While side effects of the flu vaccine may occur, they are usually minor and the safety of flu vaccines is high. The flu vaccine can cause serious side effects, including an allergic reaction, but this is rare. Furthermore, the common side effects and risks of inoculation are mild and temporary when compared to the risks and severe health effects of the annual influenza epidemic's well-documented toll of illness, hospitalization, and death.

  • Development of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines
  • Pediatric vaccines
  • Plant-made influenza vaccines : Case studies
  • Vaccine platform in response to emerging infectious diseases
  • Epidemic vaccines and pandemic vaccine
  • Swine flu
  • Ebola
  • Development of artificial influenza virus-like particle vaccine
  • Risk management and mitigation

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