Innate immune evasion

Cells of the innate immune system, in effect, prevent free growth of bacteria within the body; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms allowing them to evade the innate immune system.

Evasion strategies that circumvent the innate immune system include intracellular replication, such as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or a protective capsule that prevents lysis by complement and by phagocytes, as in salmonellaBacteroides species are normally mutualistic bacteria, making up a substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora.  Some species (B. fragilis, for example) are opportunistic pathogens, causing infections of the peritoneal cavity. These species evade the immune system through inhibition of phagocytosis by affecting the receptors that phagocytes use to engulf bacteria or by mimicking host cells so that the immune system does not recognize them as foreign. Staphylococcus aureus inhibits the ability of the phagocyte to respond to chemokine signals. Other organisms such as M. tuberculosisStreptococcus pyogenes, andBacillus anthracis utilize mechanisms that directly kill the phagocyte.

Some viruses are able to evade this immune system by producing molecules that interfere with the IFN production pathway. For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to single-stranded and double-stranded RNA, thus inhibiting type I IFN production. Influenza A virus also blocks protein kinase R activation and the establishment of the antiviral state. The dengue virus also inhibits type I IFN production by blocking IRF-3 phosophorylation using NS2B3 protease complex.

  • Innate immune evasion by intracellular replication
  • Immune Evasion through protective capsule
  • Immune Evasion through mimicking
  • Immune Evasion through complex biofilms
  • Evasion of the innate immune system by virus
  • Role of eosinophils in Immune Response

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