Invitro measurements

Invitro measurements in macrophages & cell lines

Studies that are in vitro (Latin: in glass; often not italicized in English are performed with cells or biological molecules studied outside their normal biological context; for example proteins are examined in solution, or cells in artificial culture medium. Colloquially called "test tube experiments", these studies in biology and its sub-disciplines are traditionally done in test-tubes, flasks, petri dishes etc. They now involve the full range of techniques used in molecular biology such as the so-called omics. Studies that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms. In contrast, in vivo studies are those conducted in animals including humans, and whole plants.

Examples of in vitro studies include: the isolation, growth and identification of microorganisms; cells derived from multicellular organisms (cell culture or tissue culture); subcellular components (e.g. mitochondria or ribosomes); cellular or subcellular extracts (e.g. wheat germ or reticulocyte extracts); purified molecules (often proteins, DNA, or RNA, either individually or in combination); and the commercial production of antibiotics and other pharmaceutical products. Viruses, which only replicate in living cells, are studied in the laboratory in cell or tissue culture, and many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work on whole animals.

 

De-immunization by epitope modification is a strategy for reducing immunogenicity based on disruption of HLA binding, an underlying requirement for T cell stimulation. The idea of rational epitope modification is rooted in the natural process that occurs when tumor cells and pathogens evolve to escape immune pressure by accumulating mutations that reduce the binding of their constituent epitopes to host HLA, rendering the host cell unable to “signal” to T cells the presence of the tumor or pathogen

  • Comparision of untreated cell types
  • Comparision of genes induced by LPS
  • Signalling modules in stimulated macrophages
  • Kinetic modelling of calcium signalling networks in macrophages

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