The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that are found in all vertebrates. They remove waste products from the body, maintain the balance of electrolyte levels, and regulate blood pressure.

In this session we have the following topics:

  • Kidney
  • Clinical Nephrology-General Aspects
  • Nephroptosis
  • Nephronophthisis
  • Kidney Stones
  • Inherited Kidney Diseases
  • Kidney and Anemia
  • New Kidney Diseases
  • Minimal Change Disease
  • Alport Syndrome
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Kidney Failure
  • Infection and Renal Disease


More than 30 million American adults are living with kidney disease and most don’t know it. “There are a number of physical signs of kidney disease, but sometimes people attribute them to other conditions. Also, those with kidney disease tend not to experience symptoms until the very late stages, when the kidneys are failing or when there are large amounts of protein in the urine. This is one of the reasons why only 10% of people with chronic kidney disease know that they have it.

Kidney Conditions

  1. Pyelonephritis (infection of kidney pelvis): Bacteria may infect the kidney, usually causing back pain and fever. A spread of bacteria from an untreated bladder infection is the most common cause of pyelonephritis.
  2. Glomerulonephritis: An overactive immune system may attack the kidney, causing inflammation and some damage. Blood and protein in the urine are common problems that occur with glomerulonephritis. It can also result in kidney failure.
  3. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis): Minerals in urine form crystals (stones), which may grow large enough to block urine flow. It's considered one of the most painful conditions. Most kidney stones pass on their own, but some are too large and need to be treated.
  4. Nephrotic syndrome: Damage to the kidneys causes them to spill large amounts of protein into the urine. Leg swelling (edema) may be a symptom.
  5. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic condition resulting in large cysts in both kidneys that hinder their work.
  6. Acute renal failure (kidney failure): A sudden worsening in how well your kidneys work. Dehydration, a blockage in the urinary tract, or kidney damage can cause acute renal failure, which may be reversible.
  7. Chronic renal failure: A permanent partial loss of how well your kidneys work. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes.
  8. End-stage renal disease (ESRD): Complete loss of kidney strength, usually due to progressive chronic kidney disease. People with ESRD require regular dialysis for survival.
  9. Papillary necrosis: Severe damage to the kidneys can cause chunks of kidney tissue to break off internally and clog the kidneys. If untreated, the resulting damage can lead to total kidney failure.
  10. Diabetic nephropathy: High blood sugar from diabetes progressively damages the kidneys, eventually causing chronic kidney disease. Protein in the urine (nephrotic syndrome) may also result.
  11. Hypertensive nephropathy: Kidney damage caused by high blood pressure. Chronic renal failure may eventually result.
  12. Kidney cancer: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer affecting the kidney. Smoking is the most common cause of kidney cancer.
  13. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the connective tissue inside the kidney, often causing acute renal failure. Allergic reactions and drug side effects are the usual causes.
  14. Minimal change disease: A form of nephrotic syndrome in which kidney cells look almost normal under the microscope. The disease can cause significant leg swelling (edema). Steroids are used to treat minimal change disease.
  15. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: The kidneys lose the ability to concentrate the urine, usually due to a drug reaction. Although it's rarely dangerous, diabetes insipidus causes constant thirst and frequent urination.
  16. Renal cyst: A hollowed-out space in the kidney. Isolated kidney cysts often happen as people age, and they almost never cause a problem. Complex cysts and masses can be cancerous.

Kidney Tests

  • Urinalysis: A routine test of the urine by a machine and often by a person looking through a microscope. Urinalysis can help detect infections, inflammation, microscopic bleeding, and kidney damage.
  • Kidney ultrasound: A probe placed on the skin reflects sound waves off the kidneys, creating images on a screen. Ultrasound can reveal blockages in urine flow, stones, cysts, or suspicious masses in the kidneys.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: A CT scanner takes a series of X-rays, and a computer creates detailed images of the kidneys.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan: A scanner uses radio waves in a magnetic field to make high-resolution images of the kidneys.
  • Urine and blood cultures: If an infection is suspected, cultures of the blood and urine may identify the bacteria responsible. This can help target antibiotic therapy.
  • Ureteroscopy: An endoscope (flexible tube with a camera on its end) is passed through the urethra into the bladder and ureters. Ureteroscopy generally cannot reach the kidneys themselves, but can help treat conditions that also affect the ureters.
  • Kidney biopsy: Using a needle inserted into the back, a small piece of kidney tissue is removed. Examining the kidney tissue under a microscope may help diagnose a kidney problem.

10 possible signs you may have kidney disease

  1. You're more tired, have less energy or are having trouble concentrating. A severe decrease in kidney function can lead to a buildup of toxins and impurities in the blood. This can cause people to feel tired, weak and can make it hard to concentrate. Another complication of kidney disease is anemia, which can cause weakness and fatigue.
  2. You're having trouble sleeping. When the kidneys aren't filtering properly, toxins stay in the blood rather than leaving the body through the urine. This can make it difficult to sleep. There is also a link between obesity and chronic kidney disease, and sleep apnea is more common in those with chronic kidney disease, compared with the general population.
  3. You have dry and itchy skin. Healthy kidneys do many important jobs. They remove wastes and extra fluid from your body, help make red blood cells, help keep bones strong and work to maintain the right amount of minerals in your blood. Dry and itchy skin can be a sign of the mineral and bone disease that often accompanies advanced kidney disease, when the kidneys are no longer able to keep the right balance of minerals and nutrients in your blood.
  4. You feel the need to urinate more often. If you feel the need to urinate more often, especially at night, this can be a sign of kidney disease. When the kidneys filters are damaged, it can cause an increase in the urge to urinate. Sometimes this can also be a sign of a urinary infection or enlarged prostate in men.
  5. You see blood in your urine. Healthy kidneys typically keep the blood cells in the body when filtering wastes from the blood to create urine, but when the kidney's filters have been damaged, these blood cells can start to "leak" out into the urine. In addition to signaling kidney disease, blood in the urine can be indicative of tumors, kidney stones or an infection.
  6. Your urine is foamy. Excessive bubbles in the urine – especially those that require you to flush several times before they go away—indicate protein in the urine. This foam may look like the foam you see when scrambling eggs, as the common protein found in urine, albumin, is the same protein that is found in eggs.
  7. You're experiencing persistent puffiness around your eyes. Protein in the urine is an early sign that the kidneys’ filters have been damaged, allowing protein to leak into the urine. This puffiness around your eyes can be due to the fact that your kidneys are leaking a large amount of protein in the urine, rather than keeping it in the body.
  8. Your ankles and feet are swollen. Decreased kidney function can lead to sodium retention, causing swelling in your feet and ankles. Swelling in the lower extremities can also be a sign of heart disease, liver disease and chronic leg vein problems.
  9. You have a poor appetite. This is a very general symptom, but a buildup of toxins resulting from reduced kidney function can be one of the causes.
  10. Your muscles are cramping. Electrolyte imbalances can result from impaired kidney function. For example, low calcium levels and poorly controlled phosphorus may contribute to muscle cramping.


List of nephrology Journals

  • Plos one
  • American journal of kidney diseases
  • Kidney international
  • Clinical journal of the american soeiety of nephrology
  • Journal of the american society of nephrology
  • Advances in cronic kidney diseases
  • Clinical kidney journal
  • Nephrology dialysis transplantation
  • The turkish nephrology dialysis and transplantation journal (tndt)
  • Hemodialysis international
  • Journal of renal care
  • Nephrology
  • Seminars in dialysis
  • Journal of renal nutrition
  • Journal of pediatric nephrology
  • Pediatric nephrology
  • Der nephrologe
  • Renal replacement therapy
  • Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • Clinical and experimental nephrology case reports
  • International urology and nephrology
  • Journal of nephrology
  • Journal of clinical and experimental nephrology
  • Journal of renal medicine
  • Journal of nephrology & therapeutics
  • Journal of kidney
  • Bmc nephrology
  • Canadian journal of kidney health and disease
  • Clinical queries: nephrology
  • Hong kong journal of nephrology
  • Néphrologie & thérapeutique
  • Seminars in nephrology
  • Kidney international reports
  • Kidney international supplements
  • Kidney research and clinical practice
  • Nefrología
  • Nefrología english edition
  • Open journal of nephrology
  • Brazilian journal of nephrology
  • American journal of physiology: renal physiology
  • Journal of renal injury prevention
  • Peritoneal dialysis international
  • American journal of nephrology
  • Kidney and blood pressure research
  • Case reports in nephrology and dialysis
  • Kidney diseases
  • Nephron
  • Nephron extra
  • The open journal of urology & nephrology
  • Sage journals
  • New england journal of medicine
  • Japanees journal of pediatric nephrology
  • European medical journal: nephrology
  • Blood purification
  • Journal of the balkan cities association of nephrology, dialysis, transplantation and artificial organs
  • Indian journal of nephrology
  • Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation
  • Chinese journal of nephrology
  • Clinical nephrology
  • Clinical nephrology – case studies
  • Kidney and hypertension diseases
  • Iranian journal of kidney diseases
  • Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis
  • Advances in peritoneal dialysis
  • Indian journal of peritoneal dialysis
  • Renal society of australia journal
  • International journal of nephrology
  • Case reports in nephrology
  • International journal of nephrology and renovascular disease
  • Nephro-urology monthly
  • Portuguese journal of nephrology and hypertension
  • Cardiorenal medicine
  • Journal of nephropathology  supports only in mozilla
  • Open journal of organ transplant surgery
  • American journal of transplantation
  • Clinical transplantation
  • Transplant international
  • Indian journal of transplantation
  • International journal of organ transplantation medicine
  • Hsoa journal of nephrology & renal therapy
  • Pediatric transplantation
  • Transplantation proceedings
  • Transplantation reports
  • Transplantation reviews
  • Journal of vascular access
  • Urolithiasis
  • Journal of nephrology, dialysis and transplantation
  • Experimental and clinical transplantation
  • Journal of integrative nephrology & andrology
  • Journal of the egyptian society of nephrology and transplantation
  • Nephrology @ point of care
  • Transplantation
  • Italiana di nefrologia
  • Medicine
  • Transplantation direct
  • Journal of urology & nephrology
  • Open access journal of urology & nephrology
  • World journal of nephrology and urology
  • World journal of nephrology
  • World journal of transplantataion
  • International journal of nephrology and kidney failure
  • Transplantation research journal
  • Archives of renal diseases and management
  • Journal of nephropharmacology
  • Internet journal of nephrology
  • Electrolytes and blood pressure
  • Tropical journal of nephrology
  • Journal of nephrology research
  • Journal of dialysis
  • Renal failure
  • Kidney cancer journal
  • Journal of nephrology advances
  • Journal of nephrology and renal transplantation
  • Journal of kidney cancer and vhl
  • Journal of clinical nephrology and research
  • Jsm renal medicine
  • Journal of urology and research
  • Journal of clinical nephrology and renal care
  • Clinical nephrology and urology science
  • Nephrology open journal
  • Archives of clinical nephrology
  • Journal of urology and nephrology open access
  • Joj urology & nephrology
  • Jacobs journal of nephrology and urology
  • Childhood kidney diseases
  • Enliven nephrology and renal studies
  • Journal of kidney care
  • Kidneys
  • News in nephrology
  • Current opinion in nephrology & hypertension
  • Minerva urologica e nefrologica
  • Oa nephrology
  • Nephrology and dialysis poland
  • Ukrainian journal of nephrology and dialysis
  • Nefrología latinoamericana
  • Journal of onconephrology
  • African journal of nephrology
  • Nephrology nursing
  • Journal of the association for vascular access (java)
  • Baoj urology & nephrology
  • Organ transplantation journal
  • Clinical nephrology
  • Journal of urology and renal diseases
  • Kidney disease and transplantation
  • Sm journal of nephrology and kidney diseases
  • Sm journal of nephrology and therapeutics (smjnt)
  • Sm journal of renal medicine
  • Journal of nephrology and urology
  • Annals of clinical nephrology
  • Journal of clinical nephrology
  • Journal of clinical nephrology and kidney diseases
  • Renal medicine
  • Frontiers in medicine: nephrology
  • British open journal of urology & nephrology
  • British open journal of nephrology
  • British open journal of advanced nephrology
  • Journal of nephrology & kidney diseases
  • Translational kidney research
  • European advances journal of nephrology and urology
  • Kidney and urological research: open access
  • American journal of urology and nephrology
  • International journal of kidney & urology (ijku)
  • Advances in renal replacement therapy
  • Nephrology dialysis transplantation supliments
  • Indian journal of radiology and imaging
  • Translational research journal
  • International journal of urology
  • Bmc urology
  • Open journal of urology
  • Diabetic care
  • Rsna radiology
  • Journal of the american medical association
  • Seminars in vascular surgery
  • Journal of vascular and interventional radiology
  • European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery
  • Journal of cardiothoracic-renal research
  • World journal of urology
  • Current urology reports
  • Current hypertension reports
  • Journal of artificial organs
  • The international journal of artificial organs
  • African journal of urology
  • Arab journal of urology
  • Asian journal of urology
  • British journal of medical and surgical urology
  • European urology focus
  • European urology supplements
  • Journal of pediatric urology
  • The journal of urology
  • Urology
  • Urology case reports
  • Urology practice
  • Yearbook of urology
  • Canadian journal of diabetes
  • Diabetes & metabolic syndrome: clinical research & reviews
  • Diabetes & metabolism
  • Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • International journal of diabetes mellitus
  • Journal of diabetes and its complications
  • American journal of hypertension
  • Journal of the american society of hypertension
  • Asbmt biology of blood and marrow transplantation
  • Cell transplantation
  • Urología colombiana
  • Urologic oncology: seminars and original investigations
  • Journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare
  • International jurnal of diabetes investigation
  • Bmj open
  • Journal of vascular surgery
  • Annals of vascular surgery
  • Transplant infectious disease


  • Kidney
  • Clinical Nephrology-General Aspects
  • Nephroptosis
  • Nephronophthisis
  • Kidney Stones
  • Inherited Kidney Diseases
  • Kidney and Anemia
  • New Kidney Diseases
  • Minimal Change Disease
  • Alport Syndrome
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Kidney Failure
  • Infection and Renal Disease

Related Conference of Kidney

Kidney Conference Speakers