Kidney and Bladder Stones

A branch of medicine which deals with the study of typical kidney function, kidney problems & their treatment, it also encompasses renal replacement therapies.

Acute kidney failure: Dysfunction of the kidneys to filter the waste from the blood. Decreased urinary output, swelling due to urinary retention, nausea, shortness of breath is some of the symptoms. Acute tubular necrosis was expiry of the tubular epithelial of the renal tubules in the kidneys. An ingestion of nephrotoxic drugs & low blood pressure are the common causes.

Every nephrologist has an usual extensive training in general internal medicine, and many nephrologists will treat their patients for other things also kidney problems. It’s important that patients express their kidney doctors if they notice any deviations in their health.

  1. Calcium stones
  2. Uric Acid stones
  3. Struvite stones
  4. Cystine stones
  5. Xanthine stones
  6. Calcium phosphate stones
  7. Calcium oxalate stones
  8. Supersaturation of urine
  9. Inhibitors of stone formation
  10. Hypocitraturia
  11. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
  12. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

 

                                         

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