Lasers and Optics

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation(Laser). More specifically, one usually means laser oscillators, but sometimes also includes devices with laser amplifiers. The first laser device was a pulsed ruby laser, demonstrated by Theodore Maiman in the 1960s. In the same year, the first gas laser, a helium–neon laser and the first laser diode were made. Semiconductor lasers, that are predominantly laser diodes, that are electrically or optically pumped, efficiently generating very high output powers, but typically with poor beam quality, or low powers with very good spatial properties for application in media players, or pulses for example for telecom applications with very high pulse repetition rates. Special types include quantum cascade lasers for mid-infrared light and surface-emitting semiconductor lasers, the latter also being suitable for pulse generation with high powers.

Laser science precedes the invention of the laser itself. Albert Einstein formed the foundations for the laser and maser in 1917. Using a paper in which he re-derived Max Planck’s law of radiation using an abstraction based on probability coefficients (Einstein coefficients) for the absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The presence of stimulated emission was confirmed by Rudolf W. Ladenburg. Valentin A. Fabrikant foretold the use of stimulated emission to amplify "short" waves. Willis E. Lamb and R. C. Retherford found evidently stimulated emission in hydrogen spectra and they effected the first demonstration of stimulated emission. Kastler proposed the method of optical pumping, that was experimentally confirmed, two years later, by Kastler and Winter. Most optical effects can be totaled for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. 

  • Lasers in medicines and lifesciences
  • Quantum optics
  • Advances in Laser technology
  • Biomedial optics
  • Computational optical sensing and imaging
  • Photorefractive effects
  • Fibre optic technology
  • Modern trends in Laser physics
  • Non linear optics
  • Applied industrial optics
  • Optical materials and devices
  • Optical communication and networking
  • Integration of ODEs

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