Major Challenges in Renewable and Sustainable energy

Photo-catalytic Hydrogen Production in which Nano-sized TiO2 photocatalytic water-splitting technology has great potential for low-cost, environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production to support the future hydrogen economy. Presently, the solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency is too low for the technology to be economically sound. The main barriers are the rapid recombination of photo-generated electron/hole pairs as well as backward reaction and the poor activation of TiO2 by visible light. There are Further developments in sensitized H2 production and a vision on the Future directions and challenges in photocatalytic H2 generation are enumerated.

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is the critical forcing data in ecological and agricultural fields. Remote sensing can be utilized to derive spatiotemporally continuous PAR. Empirical algorithms can be used to quickly retrieve surface PAR data sets, but their accuracy cannot be guaranteed in regions without local calibration. Physical algorithms generally incorporate all relevant physical processes and can be used globally, but their computational efficiency is often low. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is developed to calculate surface PAR by combining a clear-sky PAR model and the parameterizations for cloud transmittances.

  • Photo-catalytic Hydrogen Production
  • Radiative transfer
  • PAR measurement and Modelling
  • Yield photon flux
  • Second law PAR efficiency

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