Maternal health and neonatology

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. To maintain maternal health four elements are essential: prenatal care, skilled birth attendance with emergency backup, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care.
Neonatology is a subspecialty of Pediatrics that deals with infants who are ill or require special medical care due prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, birth defects.
 Birth Asphyxia is a medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a new-born infant during the birth process that usually affects the brain, whereas fetus death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy or during delivery is medially termed as Stillbirth. Premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks (fewer than 37 weeks gestational age) before the baby's estimated due date. Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring are the monitoring techniques that are used immediately preceding or during childbirth. Structured intermittent auscultation is a technique that employs the systematic use of a Doppler assessment of fetal heart rate (FHR) during labor at defined timed intervals. Ultrasound/image guided fetal intervention is the method of manipulating the fetus without either an incision in the uterus, or an endoscopic view inside the uterus. The manipulation is done entirely under real-time cross-sectional view provided by the sonogram. Spina Bifida is a birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord don't form properly and part of the spinal cord and its meninges are exposed through a gap in the backbone, thus to reduce the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes Fetoscopic repair of Spina Bifida is done.

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