Mechanisms of action of probiotics

Recent studies are providing new insight into the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates the colonization and eradication of pathogens. Particularly revealing the ability of commensals to restrain pathogen growth by dictating the metabolic pathways that control the competition for limited nutrients in the intestine. Furthermore, inflammatory responses have profound effects on the growth of pathogens and certain commensal species. However, the relative contributions of each metabolic pathway and the commensal species involved remain poorly understood. In addition, little is known about how the inflammatory responses affect interactions between pathogens and commensals. There is a delicate balance in microbiota populations in the gut and disruption in this balance leads to dysbiosis and overgrowth of pathobionts leading to pathologic immune responses and disease. The identification and characterization of natural “competitors” that suppress the growth of pathogens and pathobionts may lead to the development of rational approaches to manage intestinal disease. There is also a clear role for host immunity in controlling microbiota populations. However, recent studies have challenged a critical role of innate recognition receptors in determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which the host regulates the microbiota.

  • GI microorganisms: Detection, enumeration
  • Biomarkers and Probiotic efficacy
  • Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching
  • Probiotic bacteria immune effects
  • Gut microbiota targeted modulation
  • Non-mucosal Interaction with immune system

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