Melanoma and Carcinoma: Biomarkers

A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. Ideally, such biomarkers can be assayed in non-invasively collected bio fluids like blood or serum. be difficult at times. Distinguishing ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms that are benign nevi from those that represent true melanoma is important both for treatment and prognosis. Diagnostic biomarkers currently used to assist in the diagnosis of melanoma are usually specific only for melanocytic malignant neoplasm and not necessarily for their ability to metastasize. Traditional prognostic biomarkers include depth of invasion and mitotic count. Newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarker research utilize immunohistochemical staining as well as ribonucleic acid, micro-ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of increasing importance in the treatment of melanoma with the development of newer and more targeted therapies.

Melanomas occasionally develop metastatic disease. To help elucidate which patients are more likely to have disease progression and need adjuvant therapy, investigators have searched for histological prognostic biomarkers. Serum biomarkers that could aid clinicians in making case management decisions would be enormously valuable. We used two proteomic platforms and a literature search to select candidate serum markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Melanoma-inhibiting activity (MIA) was isolated previously as a small soluble protein secreted from malignant melanoma cell lines in vitro. In vivo, highly restricted expression patterns in melanocytic tumors were identified. The discovery and development of predictive biomarkers designed to predict therapy-specific disease outcome parameters such as overall and recurrence-free survival. The two critical statistical analyses of high-dimensional genomic data, gene screening and prediction, in the framework of development and validation of genomic biomarkers or signatures, through taking into consideration the possible different strategies for developing genomic signatures. A wide variety of biomarker-based clinical trial designs to assess clinical utility of a biomarker or a new treatment with a companion biomarker. DNA is a key target for the delivery of drugs because of it interfering with how genes are expressed and how proteins are created. The replication process for DNA can be affected as well, which is important for cell growth as well as a cell's ability to successfully divide.

                                                 

  • New prognostic tissue biomarkers
  • Serum biomarkers
  • Melanoma-inhibiting activity
  • Response-predictive biomarkers
  • Personalised genomics and clinical biomarkers
  • Targeting protein involving DNA
  • Metabolomics in novel biomarker

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