Microbial Production of Organic Acids

Organic acids are chemical compounds widely distributed in nature as normal constituents of plants or animal tissues. Organic acids represent a rising chemical segment in which several bio‐based compounds such as fumaric, propionic, and itaconic acids are synthesized. Organic acids constitute a key group among the building‐block chemicals that can be produced by microbial processes. Organic acids have been used for many years in the food, chemical, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries. The chemical industries use organic acids as basic compounds for a wide variety of polymer and solvent production processes. Organic acids differ on the basis of the involvement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. Major types of organic acid produced by microbial activity are citric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, itaconic acid, lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, fumaric acid, propionic acid, and acetic acid.

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