Molecular Evolution

Genome data have revealed great variation in the numbers of genes in different organisms, which indicates that there is a fundamental process of genome evolution: the origin of new genes. However, there has been little opportunity to explore how genes with new functions originate and evolve. The study of ancient genes has highlighted the antiquity and general importance of some mechanisms of gene origination, and recent observations of young genes at early stages in their evolution have unveiled unexpected molecular and evolutionary processes. Current knowledge of the origin of new genes encompasses information regarding both protein-coding genes and RNA genes. All of these genes are transcribed, but only protein-coding genes are translated into proteins. New gene origination is a driving force of evolutionary innovation in all organisms. Recent research has focused on identifying the mechanisms that generate new genes, and scientists have found that these mechanisms involve a variety of molecular events, all of which must occur in the germ line to be inherited by the next generation. After the germ-line mutational event, the new gene (e.g., a new gene duplicate located on human chromosome 2) will be polymorphic in the population; in other words, not all second chromosomes in the population will carry the duplication. Subsequently, the two most likely outcomes for the new gene are fixation.

Conferences on Origin of New Genes are CP 2016, The 22nd International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, Toulouse, France- The 2nd Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Conference (SEBC 2016) Nanjing, China- 7th Swedish Meeting on Mathematics in Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden- Annual Scientific Retreat, UCLA, CA, USA- VIIIth Southern Connection Congress 2016, Punta Arenas, Chile- 18th International Conference on Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, London, UK- BAMM-Biology and Mathematics through Medicine, Virginia, USA- ICTP-SAIFR School on Physics Applications in Biology, São Paulo, Brazil- Fourteenth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference, CA, USA- Conference: Synthetic Biology, Paris, France.

The origination of novel genes is an important process during the evolution of organisms because it provides critical sources for evolutionary innovation.  Several thousand genes in the human genome have been linked to a heritable genetic disease. The majority of these appear to be nonessential genes (i.e., are not embryonically lethal when inactivated), and one could therefore speculate that they are late additions in the evolutionary lineage toward humans. Some of our genes are immensely old, perhaps dating all the way back to the earliest chapters of life on earth.

  • Molecular basis for inheritance
  • Gene duplication
  • Pseudogenes
  • Gene Selection
  • Recombination
  • Sequence Homology
  • Mutation

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