Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I and II

These are rare, genetic conditions are passed down through families. They cause tumors of the parathyroid, adrenal, and thyroid glands, leading to overproduction of hormones. The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same person, but not necessarily at the same time. The disorder may occur at any age, and affects men and women equally. The main risk factor is a family history of MEN II.

Multiple endocrine neoplasias are of two types, type 1 and type 2. They are a group of disorders of endocrine system that are caused due to the development of lesions or nodules in the pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic glands. Multiple endocrine type 1 is also known as wermers syndrome. Multiple endocrine type 2 is also known as phechromocytoma  or sipple syndrome which caused medullary thyroid carcinoma. They both are hereditary disorders which can be inherited from one generation to other generation. Type 1 and type 2 are differentiated on the basis of genes involvement. Hyperparathyroidism is the most common sign of type 1 which includes osteoporosis, pancreatic tumors including islets of Langerhans is also a common sign of the type 1 neoplasia. Pheochorocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are the most common symptoms of the type 2 neoplasia. Management of MEN 2 includes thyroidectomy. The occurrence of MEN 2 is due to the variation in proto oncogene known as RET. The occurrence of MEN 1 is due to the mutation of MEN 1 gene. The person with MEN 1 is born with a mutational copy of MEN 1 gene. MEN 1 can be caused at the age of <40 years. It have a positive family history and more than one organ can be effected. MEN 2 can be effected at any age and it also has a positive family history.

  • Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Parathyroid adenoma
  • Parathyroid hyperplasia
  • Treatment and medication

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