Myeloperoxidase Antibodies

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17. MPO is a member of the XPO subfamily of peroxidases and produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride anion (Cl−) (or the equivalent from a non-chlorine halide) during the neutrophil's respiratory burst. It requires heme as a cofactor. Antibodies against MPO have been implicated in various types of vasculitis, most prominently three clinically and pathologically recognized forms: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA); and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly Churg–Strauss syndrome).

Antibodies are also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), though ANCAs have also been detected in staining of the perinuclear region. Immunohistochemical staining for myeloperoxidase used to be administered in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate that the leukemic cells were derived from the myeloid lineage.

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