Non-oxide Ceramics

Non-oxide ceramics include carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and others. Their applications range from superhard abrasives (B4C, BN) and cutting tools (WC), to rocket nozzles (TiB2), electrodes for metal melts (ZrB2) and heating elements (MoSi2). The most important structural non-oxide ceramics are silicon carbide SiC, silicon nitrideSi3N4 and the so-called sialons, nitride-based ceramics with varying oxide contents. Non-oxides must undergo high-temperature processing in reducing or inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation. Furthermore, their strong and predominantly covalent (i.e. directional) atomic bonds inhibit atomic migration (diffusion) so that solid-state sintering below the decomposition temperature (approx. 2500 °C for SiC, approx. 1900 °C for Si3N4) is limited. Liquid-phase sintering or reaction bonding techniques are necessary for densification.

 

 

  • Multifunctional Oxides

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