Origins and Types of Antibiotic and Antimicrobials

The world is in the midst of an emerging crisis of antibiotic resistance to microbial pathogens. Numerous pathogens that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics have been described in various contexts, including drug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Considering the breadth of effect and significant impact on morbidity and mortality, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are a substantial threat to public health. Although this problem calls for the development of new antibiotics with new mechanisms of action, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned the sector as less lucrative for their investments. The number of new antibiotics approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declined dramatically during the past 2 decades.

  • Bacterial Spectrum
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis
  • Interference with microtubules and microfilaments
  • Impairment of cell membrane functions by increasing permeability
  • Inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis
  • Based on Mechanism of Action of the Drugs
  • Based on Cidal or Static Action
  • Type of Activity
  • Route of Administration
  • Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis

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