Pathogenic Flagellates and Ciliates

The flagellates are a grade of organisation. Traditionally, they are those protozoa which spend most of their existence moving or feeding with a small number of flagella. This type of organization is the most widespread among protists. In addition, alveolates and stramenopiles include heterotrophic flagellates, as do several groups often thought of as algae (dinoflagellates, euglenids, and cryptomonads). Some of the amoebae revert to flagellated forms for part of their life history or have non-functional flagella attached to their bodies. Many parasites which affect human health or economy are flagellates. They include the relatively benign Giardia and the more damaging trypanosomes and leishmaniases. Flagellates are the major consumers of primary and secondary production in aquatic ecosystems - consuming bacteria and other protists and ensuring the recycling of limiting nutrients. The Ciliata, or Ciliophora, includes about 7000 known species of some of the most complex single-celled organisms ever. Some or all of the surface of a ciliate is covered with relatively short, dense hairlike structures, the cilia, which beat to propel the ciliate through the water and/or to draw in food particles. Ciliates include some of the largest free-living protists. They are abundant in almost every environment with liquid water: ocean waters, marine sediments, lakes, ponds, and rivers, and even soils. Because individual ciliate species vary greatly in their tolerance of pollution, the ciliates found in a body of water can be used to gauge the degree of pollution quickly. 

The flagellates possess more than one flagellum and ciliates are characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia which serve as locomotory organelles, enabling them to invade and adapt to a wider range of environments. They are able to change from a free-swimming environment to a tissue dwelling stage and vice versa. Flagellates and ciliates are known to inhabit the reproductive tract, alimentary canal, tissue sites and also the blood stream, lymph vessels and cerebrospinal canal. There are pathogenic and commensal species of flagellates and ciliates. 

  • Characterization and Classification of Ciliated Protozoa
  • Food-borne pathogens
  • Wastewater pathogens
  • Genesis of germs
  • Taxonomy, Kinetoplastids and flagellates of fish parasites
  • Taxonomy, Kinetoplastids and flagellates of fish parasites
  • Insect pathology
  • A practical approach: Clinical Parasitology

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