Pediatric surgical oncology

Pediatric oncology is the research and treatment of cancers in children and young adults. Pediatric oncologists study and train in both pediatrics and oncology. The types of cancers that develop in children are often different from cancers that develop in adults. Because of this, pediatric oncologists specialize in treating infants, children, young adults and teenagers who have cancer. Childhood cancers can develop as the result of DNA changes in cells that occur early in life, even before birth. Some adult cancers are linked to environmental or lifestyle factors. Cancers that occur in children are very rarely related to any type of environmental or lifestyle factor. Childhood cancers include:
Brain and spinal cord tumor (a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. The majority of childhood brain tumors are diagnosed and removed in surgery. These types of tumors account for about one-fourth of childhood cancers)
Leukemia (This cancer affects the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system. Leukemia accounts for almost one-third of all cancers in children.)
Lymphoma (There are two main types of this group of blood cancers that develop in the lymphatic system: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Both types of lymphoma occur in children, making up a combined 8 percent of childhood cancers.)
Neuroblastoma (This rare type of cancer nearly always affects children. Neuroblastoma develops from nerve cells in the fetus known as neuroblasts. Neuroblastoma can be inherited and these types of tumors usually develop in the adrenal glands.)
Other common childhood cancers include Wilms tumor, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Retinoblastoma and bone cancers such as Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.

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