Petroleum Geology

Petroleum geology is the study of the origin, natural occurrence, movement, gathering  and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels, especially oil or petroleum. Petroleum geology involves sedimentology, the study of how sand, mud and clay are deposited. The majority of rocks found on the Earth's surface are sedimentary rocks. Studying sedimentology helps petroleum geologists understand how the petroleum deposits found in sedimentary rocks came to be because it is in sedimentary basins that the commercial accumulations of petroleum occur.

A sedimentary basin may be defined as an area in which sediments accumulate during a particular time span at a significantly greater rate and so to a significantly greater thickness than in the surrounding areas. This is not entirely satisfactory because of the vagueness about thickness-yet this vagueness exists. The essential part of any definition must be the accumulation of sediment relative to neighboring areas and its relative rather than absolute thickness. Another aspect of petroleum geology is stratigraphy, the study of the relationship between rock layers and the way they can move or shift. The movement of rock layers can affect where petroleum deposits are found, as well as the removal of the petroleum.

  • Source rock analysis
  • Basin analysis
  • Exploration stage
  • Appraisal stage
  • Production stage
  • Reservoir analysis

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