Physiological effects and Insulin Regulation

Insulin is a key player in the control of intermediary metabolism and has profound effects on electrolyte metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and significant influences on protein and mineral metabolism. Insulin stimulates the liver to store glucose in the form of glycogen. A well-known effect of insulin is to decrease the concentration of glucose in blood. The metabolic pathways for utilization of fats and carbohydrates are deeply and intricately intertwined. Considering insulin's profound effects on carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin promotes synthesis of fatty acids in the liver. Insulin inhibits breakdown of fat in adipose tissue by inhibiting the intracellular lipase that hydrolyzes triglycerides to release fatty acids.
  • Direct stimulation: Plasma glucose or amino acids
  • Hormoanl regulation: Gastrointestinal Hormones( GIP, CCK) directly stimulate beta cells
  • Neural regulation: Parasympathetic stimulates insulin release through IP3/DAG.
  • Sympathetic NS inhibits insulin release through α2receptoractivation.
  • Hyperinsulinemia or excessive insulin secretion is most commonly a consequence of insulin resistance, associated with type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. More rarely, hyperinsulinemia results from an insulin-secreting tumor (insulinoma) in the pancreas

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