Plant Genomics Applications

Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Model organisms (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) provide genetic and molecular insights into the biology of more complex species. Since the genomes of most plant species are either too large or too complex to be fully analyzed, the plant scientific community has adopted model organisms. They share features such as being diploid and appropriate for genetic analysis, being amenable to genetic transformation, having a (relatively) small genome and a short growth cycle, having commonly available tools and resources, and being the focus of research by a large scientific community. Genomics will accelerate the application of gene technology to agriculture. Plant genomics research now accounts for only 2% of the U.S. federal research and development budget, despite a 35% rate of return to society. Combined federal and state research expenditures have been flat at $2.5 billion for the past 20 years while private investment has grown rapidly, accounting for 60% of total expenditures by 1995. More than 20% of the research budget at state universities is from industry. The value of agriculture to society in the U.S. dwarfs its investment. Eighteen percent of American jobs are tied directly or indirectly to agriculture, as is 15% of the gross domestic product. Over 30% of U.S. agricultural products are exported, at a value of $56.5 billion; this is twice the value of our agricultural imports. Importantly, of the products we export, 60% are processed; only 40% are commodities, and this fraction is declining. The added value from processing is being captured in the U.S., along with the associated jobs.

The global genotyping market is expected to reach $17.0 Billion in 2020 from $ 6.2 Billion in 2015, at a healthy CAGR of 22.3% from 2015 to 2020. Growth in this market is attributed to the increasing incidence of genetic diseases & increasing awareness about personalized medicine, technological advancements, decreasing prices of DNA sequencing, growing importance of SNP genotyping in drug development, and the increasing demand for genetic analysis in animal & plant livestock. The Asia-Pacific market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 25.4% during the forecast period of 2015-2020.

Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousands of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Model organisms (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) provide genetic and molecular insights into the biology of more complex species. Eighteen percent of American jobs are tied directly or indirectly to agriculture, as is 15% of the gross domestic product. Over 30% of U.S. agricultural products are exported, at a value of $56.5 billion; this is twice the value of our agricultural imports. Importantly, of the products we export, 60% are processed; only 40% are commodities, and this fraction is declining. The added value from processing is being captured in the U.S., along with the associated jobs.

  • Genomics of plant responses to environmental stress
  • Genomics of biofuels
  • Genetics and genomics of crop domestication and genes selected for during domestication
  • Applications of genomics and molecular genetics for determining the genetic basis of agricultural traits
  • Applications of genetic and genomic approaches to studying hybridization, hybrid vigour, and allopolyploidy
  • Applications of genomics approaches to population and evolutionary questions: Introgression, phylogenomics, chloroplast genomics

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