Plant Innate Immunity

 

Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invading microorganisms in vertebrates and the only line of defence in invertebrates and plants. Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). MTI confers basal resistance, while ETI confers durable resistance, often resulting in hypersensitive response. Plants also possess systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides long-term defense against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. Salicylic-acid-mediated systemic acquired immunity provokes the defense response throughout the plant system during pathogen infection at a particular site. Trans-generational immune priming allows the plant to heritably shield their progeny towards pathogens previously encountered. Plants circumvent the viral infection through RNA interference phenomena by utilizing small RNAs.

 

Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by preformed mechanisms and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant, while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit little disease damage despite substantial pathogen levels. Disease outcome is determined by the three-way interaction of the pathogen, the plant and the environmental conditions (an interaction known as the disease triangle).

Defense-activating compounds can move cell-to-cell and systemically through the plant vascular system. However, plants do not have circulating immune cells, so most cell types exhibit a broad suite of antimicrobial defenses.

  • PAMP signals in plant innate immunity
  • Plant hormone signalling systems
  • Scouts of the plant innate immune systems
  • Lectin receptor kinase in plant innate immunity

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