Polymer Materials and Technology

Polymer chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers which were considered as macromolecules. Polymers describe the bulk properties of polymer materials and belong to the field of polymer physics as a subfield of physics. Polymers are of two types-natural ( e.g., rubber, amber ), synthetic ( e.g., polyethylene, nylon, PVC ). Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. General methods of synthesis include-Biological synthesis and  also by modification of natural polymers. Laboratory research is generally divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization. Polymers are characterized by the presence of monomer units and microstructures and they can be determined by means of many lab techniques. Surface functionalization of a polymer structure is the key component of a coating formulation allowing control over such properties as dispersion, film formation temperature, and the coating rheology. The association of other additives, such as thickeners with adsorbed polymer material give rise to complex rheological behaviour and excellent control over a coating's flow properties.

Polymer blends are members of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. A polymer alloy includes multiphase copolymers but excludes incompatible polymer blends. These materials combine high modulus, heat resistance and impact strength in addition to flame retardant. Polymer processing is done by extrusion and injection moulding; other processes include calendering, compression. Polymer testing capabilities include advanced trace chemical analysis, diverse analytical capabilities and identification of chemicals composition, unknown materials and chemical contamination. It is used to identify fundamental structural information including molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and information on branching. Polymers are manufactured under pressured conditions, pressureless conditions and so on.

Polymer chemists study large, complex molecules. They understand how the smaller building blocks (monomers) combine to form polymers, and they manipulate both their molecular structure and chemical or other processing to develop specific functional characteristics in an end product. Most polymeric materials consist of long molecular chains or networks that are usually based on organics (carbon-containing precursors). Structurally, most polymeric materials are noncrystalline, but some consist of mixtures of crystalline and noncrystalline regions. The strength and ductility of polymeric materials vary greatly.

  • Polymer chemistry
  • Polymer synthesis
  • Polymer characterization
  • Polymer coating
  • Polymer blends and alloys
  • Polymer rheology and processing
  • Polymer testing
  • Polymer technology
  • Future challenges in polymer science

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