Protein Signaling & Neuronal Signaling

Protein and intracellular signaling peptides generally are peptides and proteins which are involved in transmission of signals or signal transduction across the membrane of all cells. Signals in the form of second messengers, hormones, proteins and other biological molecules which are recognized by cell surface receptors that transfer their response to other intracellular signaling peptides and Protein like Transcriptor Factor. The broadly distributed monoaminergic neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) exerts its actions via 14 classes of receptor. In many signaling pathways, many type of factors have been isolated by molecular genetic studies and whole genome analysis.

The general function of the nervous system, neurons have evolved unique capabilities for intracellular signaling and intercellular signaling. To achieve long distance, rapid communication, neurons have evolved special abilities for sending electrical signals along axons, phenomena called conduction. By the process of neurotransmission at synapses communication between neurons is achieved. Main attention will be focused on the operation of neural circuits in regions such as the respiratory centre in the brainstem, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Neural circuits are formed during development and remain constant throughout adult life. The only hippocampus is exception in humans, where by the process of neurogenesis the neuronal elements of the circuit are constantly being replaced. By the neuronal signaling pluripotent stem cells are induced. It includes the development of new therapeutic approaches and neurons have been gleaned from the fields of oncology and developmental biology.

  • Post-translational modifications in cell signaling
  • Passive and regenerative conductions
  • Propagation and termination of neurotransmission
  • Injury inflammation and pain

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