Refractive Errors and Disorders

Refractive errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors. The most common symptom is blurred vision. Other symptoms may include double vision, haziness, glare or halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. According to Ophthalmic Lasers: A Global Industry Outlook available from Global Industry Analysts, the global market for ophthalmic Lasers will rise from $591.5 million in 2011 to $804 million by 2015, a compound annual growth rate of 7.65 percent.


Increased acceptance of refractive surgery as a safe and reliable procedure has been a significant driver of the market to date, and improvements in the LASIK procedure will ensure that refractive surgery remains a key market for ophthalmic lasers while laser-based cataract surgery becomes established.

Refractive error is a disorder that occurs when parallel rays of light entering the non-accommodating eye are not sharply focused on the retina. When focused in front of the retina, it is called myopia and when focused behind the retina, it is called hypermetropia.

Myopia: When the optics is too powerful for the length of the eyeball one has myopia or near sightedness. This can arise from a cornea or crystalline lens with too much curvature (refractive myopia) or an eyeball that is too long. Hyperopia: When the optics are too weak for the length of the eyeball, one has hyperopia or farsightedness. This can arise from a cornea or crystalline lens with not enough curvature (refractive hyperopia) or an eyeball that is too short. Astigmatism A person with astigmatic refractive blunder sees lines of a specific introduction less unmistakably than lines at right edges to them. This imperfection can be rectified by refracting light more in one meridian than the other. Tube shaped lenses fill this need. Presbyopia: Presbyopia is a condition that develops with aging and results in insufficient accommodation for near work in a patient whose distance refractive error is fully corrected.

  • Myopia Refractive Errors
  • Hyperopia Refractive Errors
  • Astigmatism Refractive Errors
  • Presbyopia Refractive Errors
  • LASIK Astigmatism
  • Conductive Keratoplasty Hyperopia and Presbyopia
  • Phakic IOL Hyperopia & IOL Myopia
  • Intracorneal Ring Segments
  • Astigmatism

Related Conference of Refractive Errors and Disorders

Refractive Errors and Disorders Conference Speakers