Regional Anesthesia

Its affected is spread to the larger part of the body. It blocks the nerve impulse transmission within the targeted body part and the central nervous system, resulting in the loss of sensation to the targeted body parts. Special care is given during the selection of drugs. Widely used drugs are general anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular blocking drugs, narcotics and analgesic. They may have side effects like allergic reactions against the anesthesia used, difficulty in urinating, and decrease in blood pressure, nerve damage, severe headache or seizures in rare cases. Regional anesthesia can be further classified to Peripheral nerve blocks and Epidural and Spinal anesthesia. 
5.1. Peripheral nerve blocks: used for the specific part of the body by inhibiting the sensory perception such as numbing a tooth, procedures on the arms, hands, feet or legs.  It lasts longer then the local anesthesia. The effect of the anesthesia lasts much up to 3 day.
5.2. Epidural anesthesia: In this type of anesthesia the agent is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord. It is widely used during the Labor pain; in fact it is the first preference. It results in the loss of sensation by blocking the signal transmission in nerve fibres or near the spinal cord. Local drugs used for this are bupivacaine, chloroprocaine, or lidocaine mostly used in combination with the opioids or narcotics. 
5.3. Spinal anesthesia: In this type, a local anesthetic drug is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid. However there is a large chance of hypotension as compared to the Epidural anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia is one of the most popular and widely used procedures with some of the complications too such as infections, hematologic complications, transient neurologic symptoms, hypotension and hypothermia.

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