semiconductor growth techniques

Track 7: Semiconductor growth techniques:

   There is one reason why semiconductors have become the choice material for the electronic industry is the existence of highly growth technquies.one of the method is Czochralski Method. It is the most important method for the growth of bulk crystals of semiconductors. Czochralski method involves melting the raw materials in a crucible. A technique for achieving high purity includes growing the crystal using Czochralski process. In a Bridgman method a seed crystal is usually used for the contact with the metal like Czochralski Method. A temperature gradient is created along the along the length of the crucible so that the temperature around the seed crystal is below the melting point. As the seed crystal grows, the temperature profile is translated along the crucible by controlling the heaters along the furnace or by slowly moving the ampoule containing the seed crystal within the furnace. In Chemical Vapour Deposition gases containing the required chemical elements are made to react in the vicinity of the substrate.

               The semiconductor produced as a result of the reaction is deposited as a thin film on a substrate inside the reactor. In CVD the gases are let into the reactor at relatively high pressure. As a result, the reactor may contain high concentration of contaminants in the form of residual gases. Typically several molecular beams containing the necessary elements for forming the semiconductor and for doping the sample are aimed at the substrate, where the film grows epitaxial. Hence these growth techniques are named as Molecular Beam Epitaxy. This Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) growth technique has been very successful in growing GAAs laser diodes. Usually a group III metal, such as GA or In, is utilized as the solvent for As. When the solvent is cooled in contact with a GaAs substrate it becomes supersaturated with As and nucleation of GaAs starts on the substrate.

  • Integrated circuit design and fabrication
  • Deposition of Thin films ,Photolithography,Etching,Implantation and annealing
  • CMOS digital gates
  • MOSFET amplifiers

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