Separation Process

In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process, or a separation technique, or simply a separation, is a method to achieve any mass transfer phenomenon that converts a mixture of substances into two or more distinct product mixtures. Separations are carried out based on differences in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a mixture.

With a few exceptions, elements or compounds are naturally found in an impure state. Often these impure raw materials must be separated into their purified components before they can be put to productive use, making separation techniques essential for the modern industrial economy.

A good example of an incomplete separation technique is oil refining. Crude oil occurs naturally as a mixture of various hydrocarbons and impurities. The refining process splits this mixture into other, more valuable mixtures such as natural gas, gasoline and chemical feedstocks, none of which are pure substances, but each of which must be separated from the raw crude. In both of these cases, a series of separations is necessary to obtain the desired end products. 

  • Diffusion
  • Distillation
  • Extraction
  • Adsorption and Absorption
  • Advance Separation Process
  • Membrane Technology

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