The  scientific study or diagnostic examination of the blood serum, especially with regard to the response of the immune system to pathogens and introduced substances. Serological tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes when an infection is suspected in Rheumatic illnesses, and in many other situations, such as checking an individual's blood type. 

          Serology blood tests help to diagnose the patients with certain immune deficiencies associated with the lack of antibodies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In such cases, tests for antibodies will be consistently negative. Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can be performed on other bodily fluids such as semen and saliva, which have similar properties to serum.

There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. 

  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
  • Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Complement fixation test (CFT)
  • Neutralization tests
  • Single radial haemodialysis
  • Particle agglutination
  • Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIA)
  • Immunofluorescence techniques (IF)
  • Haemagglutination inhibition tests

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