Transcriptional Regulation & Attenuation

Transcriptional Regulation and Transcriptional Attenuation deals with Regulation of Transcription by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA and attenuation which is a regulatory feature causing premature termination of transcription. There are various classes of attenuators according to the type of molecule which induces the change in RNA structure. It can be a Small-Molecule-Mediated Attenuation: Introduction to Riboswitches, in which Riboswitch sequences (in the mRNA leader transcript) bind micro and macro molecules, which cause a conformational change in the mRNA. The other type of attenuation includes Protein-Mediated Attenuation and Ribosome-Mediated Attenuation. This phenomenon of transcriptional attenuation is most prominent in the trp Operon found throughout Archaea and Bacteria.

Major Universities as of University of Southampton, University of Utah, MBL, University Of Colorado Boulder, University of Manitoba and University of Michigan have bought up courses dealing exclusively with Transcriptome Regulation and Attenuation encouraging and attracting specific research worldwide. The topic attracts major research funding too from INRA, NIH, Laboratory of Genome Regulation and Universitat Pompeu Fabra to name a few.

Relevant Conferences:

2nd International Conference on Transcriptomics, September 12-14, Philadelphia, USA; International Conference on Clinical and Molecular Genetics November 28-30, 2016 Chicago, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; 2nd International Conference on Genetic and Protein Engineering, Nov 14-16, 2016, Atlanta, USA; International Conference on Genetic Counselling and Genomic Medicine August 11-12, 2016 Birmingham, UK; Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation (GRS), July 9-10, 2016, Vermont, United States; Basic Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer, November 8–11, 2015, Berlin, Germany; Keystone Symposia: Metabolism, Transcription and Disease, Jan 10-14, 2016, Utah, United States;  Game of Epigenomics, April 24, 2016, Dubrovnik Croatia; ICHGGT 2016 : 18th International Conference on Human Genetics and Genetic Technology, March 14 - 15, 2016 Paris, France.

Regulation of transcription is a result of the combined effects of structural properties and the interactions of proteins called transcription factors. Ribiswitches is a sequence of RNA that, through its secondary and tertiary structure, selectively binds a specific metabolite. In protein mediated attenuation Protein-RNA interactions may prevent or stabilize the formation of an anti-terminator structure. In ribosome mediated attenuation RNA polymerase is dependent on (lagging) ribosome activity; if the ribosome pauses due to insufficient charged tRNA then the anti-terminator structure is favoured.The trp operon codes for the components for production of tryptophan.

  • Regulation of Transcription
  • Small-Molecule-Mediated Attenuation: Introduction to Riboswitches
  • Protein-Mediated Attenuation
  • Ribosome-Mediated Attenuation
  • The trp Operon

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