Viral Pathogenesis and Prevention

According to the CTMS (Clinical Trial Management System) which predicted the Global Market Overview, 2014-2019, the market which was priced at $844 million in 2013, will grow at a CAGR of 14% by 2019 and will worth an envisaged $1,848.5 million.

Viral pathogenesis is attaining of the disease in the host by viruses gradually. Factors that determine the transmission, viral multiplication, disease/infection development involve complex, intricate and potent reciprocity between the viral agent and the inclined host. Viruses are capable of causing a disease after contravening the host's elementary physical and natural protective barriers, evading all- local, tissue, and immune defenses that are spread across the host’s body and destroy cells directly or indirectly by the host’s immune and inflammatory responses. Viral pathogenesis is categorized into 7 stages, 1. Transmission  & entry of the virus into the host, 2. Spread of the viral agent in the host, 3. Tropism,  4.  Virulence, 5.  Paradigm of viral infections and diseases , 6.  Host factors,  and  7.  Host defenses. 

Infection in a given population are categorized into endemic – in which the infection is present constantly but at a low level at a specific geographical location; epidemic – in which the infection has a greater impact on a population of a specific geographical area and pandemic – in which the infections spread globally and have a higher impact throughout world. Spread of these infections can either be direct – respiratory, water, food and other methods or indirect - involving a vector.

Several quantitative proposals are suggested in terms of epidemiology- such as infectivity, virulence, incidence, disease index, and prevalence. Infectivity is described as the frequency and the rate of the infection transmittance measure after the contact between a virus and an inclined host. Virulence is defined as the aggregate of number of fatalities or extreme diseased cases per total number of cases in the (global) area. Number of new infections within a specified period reflecting the total affected % of population is Incidence. Disease index is the number of indisposed divided by total number of infected people & the rate of cases that exist in a population who are at risk during a pre-defined or the forecasted period is called Prevalence.

  • Vector borne Infections
  • Host-Virus Interactions
  • Host Immune factors & Defences
  • Pathogenic mechanisms
  • Infectivity & prevalance
  • Disease index and Infectivity
  • Emerging Viruses
  • Countermeasures

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