Copyright protection exists from the moment a work is created in a fixed, tangible form of expression. The copyright immediately becomes the property of the author who created the work. Only the author, or those deriving their rights through the author, can rightfully claim copyright. In the case of works made for hire, the employernot the writeris considered the author. The standard of any sort of property is that the holder may utilize it as he wishes, and that no one else can legitimately utilize it without his sanction. This does not, obviously, imply that he can utilize it paying little heed to the lawfully perceived rights and diversions of different parts of pop culture. Thus the holder of copyright in a secured work may utilize the function as he wishes, and may keep others from utilizing it without his sanction. The rights conceded under national laws to the manager of copyright in an ensured work are regularly elite rights to sanction an outsider to utilize the work, subject to the legitimately perceived rights and hobbies of others.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on November, 2020