Panic disorder (PD) is characterized primarily by the presence of recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, followed by at least one month of persistent concern about other attacks, the possible consequences of attacks and a significant behavioral change related to the attacks. For a diagnosis of PD, the panic attacks cannot be better accounted for by another mental disorder, by physiological effects resulting from the use of substances or by other medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism. PD has 5% lifetime prevalence and 1% annually. Current treatment strategies have been based on both psychological and pharmacological therapies, although treatment-resistance and low adherence due to adverse effects are some issues that compromise optimal treatment. The neurocircuitry of fear includes two pathways for processing of sensory information. The shorter path consists of the rapid spread of autonomic and behavioral responses in potentially hazardous situations. Pedro Shiozawa, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for Panic Disorder.
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Last date updated on June, 2014