Suman Talukder*, B.D. Sharma, S.K. Mendiratta, O. P. Malav, Heena Sharma and Gokulakrishnan P
Division of LPT, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
Received Date: December 09, 2012; Accepted Date: December 28, 2012; Published Date: January 05, 2013
Citation: Talukder S, Sharma BD, Mendiratta SK, Malav OP, Sharma H, et al. (2013) Development and Evaluation of Extended Restructured Chicken Meat Block Incorporated With Colocasia (Colocasia Esculenta) Flour. J Food Process Technol 4:207. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000207
Copyright: © 2013 Talukder S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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At present the restructuring technology is preferred by the meat processors for the production of low cost, convenient meat products. To improve the functionality, products quality and acceptance of the processed meat various vegetative binders and extenders can be incorporated in the formulation. The present study was envisaged to incorporate Hydrated Colocasia Flour (HCF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% in Extended Restructured Chicken Block (ERCB), by replacing lean meat in pre-standardized formulation. The products were subjected to analysis for physico-chemical, sensory, textural properties and storage quality. Cooking yield, water activity and moisture percentage increased with increasing level of incorporation of HCP, however, protein and fat percent, pH and Shear force value of products decreased with increase in the level of incorporation. Among the sensory attributes, product with 7.5% HCF showed significantly higher values (P<0.05) for general appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability in comparison to control. Springiness, gumminess and chewiness values showed an increasing trends with increasing extender levels, however all other parameters of texture profile analysis showed decreasing values other than hardness, which did not differ significantly (P<0.05) in comparison to control. The microbiological quality and the changes in pH value were studied for the storage period of 15 days and it was found that the products could be safely stored under refrigeration (4 ± 1°C) temperature in LDPE pouches for 15 days without marked deterioration in sensory and microbiological quality. On the basis of sensory scores, physico-chemical properties and the microbial study the optimum incorporation level of HCF was adjudged as 7.5%.
Colocasia; Restructured chicken meat block; Physico chemical properties; Sensory attributes; Texture profile; Storage quality
Chicken meat is highly appreciated by the Indian consumers. The growth of the chicken meat processing industry is very high at present and there is well balance between the demand and supply of chicken. India ranks fifth in chicken meat production in the world . It is consumed throughout the country as no religious taboo is tagged with it and therefore, preferred by the processors. The acceptability of processed chicken by the consumers can be increased by developing novel innovative types of meat products which not only will supply the nutrients and health but with improved functionality and convenience. Restructuring of meat is one of the innovative and process friendly technologies around the world. The demand of health conscious consumer for convenient, highly nutritious and healthy meat products can be fulfilled satisfactorily by supply of various restructured meat products. The designer restructured meat products can be formulated as per the consumer requirements and on the basis of availability and the economics of the ingredients.
India is agriculture based country, a huge verity and quantity of vegetables and crops are produced here in every corner. Colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) is one of them, it is stem tuber crop that are widely cultivated in both the tropical and subtropical regions of the world  and contributes significant portion of the carbohydrate content of the diet in many regions in developing countries and provide edible starchy storage corms . Among seven species of Colocasia (taro) which originated from Asia Colocasia esculenta is most important and in India it is known as arbi and grown and used as vegetable. It is with a softer tuber is usually prepared and eaten like yam and produces a more floury starch suitable for use in composite mixture for food preparations. Colocasia can also be processed in several ways to produce food and feed products similar to that of potatoes in the Western world. Among the processes colocasia can be subjected to, are boiling, roasting, frying, milling, and conversion to “fufu”, soup thickeners, flour for baking, chips, beverage powder, porridge, and speciality food for gastrointestinal disorders . Composite flour incorporating colocasia has been used in extruded products such as noodles and macaroni . Colocasia is a good base for food preparation for infants because of the high digestibility of its starch, reasonable content of calcium and phosphorus (for bone building), B-complex vitamins and provitamin-A . Several studies have shown that colocasia contains digestible starch (due to the small size of the starch granules), high amount of good quality crude protein, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and high scores of amino acids , it have been found with nutritional advantages over root crops and other tubers crops . However, one major limiting factor in the utilization of colocasia is the presence of oxalates, which impart acrid taste or cause irritation when foods prepared from them are eaten. Though, by application of easy processes like boiling and fermentation, treatment with different concentrations of tetracycline and hydrochloric acid it can be reduced effectively .
This study therefore, aimed at determining the ability of colocasia to be incorporated in restructured chicken meat block as an extender as well to improve the physico-chemical, functional properties and sensory attributes of the final products. This was done in order to be able to explore its future potentiality in meat products formulation.
Source of materials
Live chicken birds (WLH) were procured from CARI, Izatnagar and dressed, deboned manually in the experimental abattoir of division of LPT, IVRI. Meat was packed in clean low density polyethylene bags (200 gauges) and frozen at -20°C until use. Food grade chemicals were procured from Qualigens, Mercks and BDH. Refined salt (Tata Chemicals Ltd., Mumbai), refined wheat flour (RWF), arbi/colocasia, onion, garlic and Low density polyethylene films (200 gauges) bags were procured from local market of Bareilly (U.P.). To prepare condiment, onion and garlic were peeled off, cut into small pieces and homogenized in a mixer to obtain a fine paste. Spices prepared in laboratory as per pre-standardized formulation. For colocasia flour, freshly pilled and sliced colocasia were oven dried and grinded to fine flour.
Formulation of restructured chicken meat blocks
Fine colocasia flour (1:1 hydration, w/w) was incorporated at the level of 5, 7.5 and 10% by replacing the lean meat in pre-standardized formulation (Table 1).
Table 1: Formulation of restructured chicken meat blocks (%).
Meat was cut manually into 1 cm cubes and put into paddle mixer (Hobart Co. N 50G). Sodium nitrite, sodium tripolyphosphate and salt were dissolved in chill water, then added to meat and massaged for 1 minute at high speed. Condiments, RWF, dry spices and hydrated colocasia were added to the mixture and again massaged for 1 minute till the tacky exudates formed. Batter was filled into aluminium moulds (7.5 cm×7.5 cm×6.0 cm); these moulds were kept in steam cooker and cooked for 45 minutes without pressure. Meat blocks were removed from moulds after cooking and cut into slices of 7 mm thick with food slicer (Electrolux H 300). Pooled sample of each treatment was assigned for analysis.
Determination of proximate composition and pH
Moisture, crude fat, protein and ash of ERCB were determined by standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists . The pH was measured as per Trout et al. , by using a combined glass electrode with a digital pH meter (Elico India L1 127).
Cooking yield measurement
Cooking yield (%) was calculated and expressed as percentage by the following formula.
Shear force value
Shear force value was determined as per Berry and Stiffler , as force required for shearing 1 cm square block measured in kg on Warner-Bratzler Shear Press (GR Elec. MFG. Co.).
Water activity of extended restructured mutton chops were measured by a P aw kit water activity meter (Decagon Devices, Pullman, Washington, USA).
Texture profile analysis
Texture profile analysis (TPA) of restructured chicken slices was done by the procedure described by Bourne  using a texture analyzer (TA HD plus Texture Analyzer) at the GBPAU&T, Pantnagar. Chilled samples were thawed to room temperature (27°C). Uniform sized pieces (1.5 cm×1.5 cm×1.5 cm), were used as the samples. The samples were placed on a platform in a fixture and compressed twice to 80% of their original height by a compression probe (P75) at a cross head speed of 10 mm/s through a two cycle sequence, using a 50 kg load cell. Texture profile parameters were determined and interpreted as follows. Hardness (N/cm2 or gm/mm2)=maximum force required to compress the sample, Cohesiveness (ratio)=extent to which sample could be deformed prior to rupture (A2/A1), A1 being the total energy required for first compression and A2 the total energy required for the second compression. Springiness (cm/mm)=ability of sample to recover its original shape after a deforming force was removed. Adhesiveness (Ns/gms)=work necessary to pull the compressing plunger away from sample. Gumminess (N/cm2 or gm/mm2)=force required to disintegrate a semisolid sample for swallowing (hardness×cohesiveness). Chewiness (N/cm or gm/mm)=work required to masticate the sample for swallowing (springiness×gumminess). Resilience (Ratio of the first decompression stroke to the first compression stroke)=a measurement of how the sample recovers from deformation. Ten determinations were performed from each sample.
The ERCB Slices of 7 mm thickness were used for sensory evaluation, using an eight point descriptive scale  with slight modifications, where 8=excellent; 1=extremely poor. The sensory panelists consisted of scientists and postgraduate students of the Livestock Products Technology Division of IVRI. ERCB were warmed (45°C) in an oven for 1 min. and served to the panelists. The panelists evaluated the samples for attributes such as general appearance, flavor, juiciness, texture, binding and overall acceptability.
The experiment was replicated three times and the data generated were analyzed by statistical methods of one way ANOVA, Mean ± S.E and paired t-test using SPSS software package developed as per the procedure of Snedecor and Cochran  and means were compared by using Dunkan’s multiple range test .
The physico-chemical properties of ERCB incorporated with varying levels of HCF are presented in table 2 and 3. Cooking yields of all treatment products increased significantly (P>0.05) with the increasing levels of extender in comparison to control. The enhanced cooking yield of products with increasing level of extender might be due to gelatinizing property of increasing starch component on heating, which stabilize the moisture to retain in the product . Product pH showed a decreasing trend with increasing level of extenders to control, which could be attributed to acidic pH of colocasia flour . The Shear force values showed a significantly decreasing (P>0.05) trend along with the increasing level of HCF, which could be due to reduction of compactness because of poor consolidation associated with increased moisture content that allowed shear blade to pass easily. The products assessed for the water activity and compared with control. The treatment products showed significantly lower (P<0.05) values in comparison to control, the products with 5% HCF showed lowest (0.932) water activity (aw). The lower water activity (aw) of the product indicated higher storage stability.
|Parameters||Control||Colocasia levels (%, hydrated 1:1)|
|Cooking yield (%)||82.91 ± 2.02 a||86.93 ± 0.48 ab||88.76± 1.09 b||90.10 ± 1.12 b|
|Product pH||6.18 ± 0.00||6.17 ± 0.00||6.15 ± 0.00||6.14 ± 0.02|
|Shear force Value (Kg/Cm2)||0.63 ± 0.00 a||0.49 ± 0.01 b||0.45 ± 0.00 c||0.37 ± 0.00 d|
|Aw||0.941 ± 0.00 a||0.932 ± 0.00 b||0.935 ± 0.00 c||0.939 ± 0.00 a|
*Mean ± S.E. with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05), n1 (CY) =3, n2 (Physico-chemical parameter) =6, n3 (SFV) =30 for each treatment.
Table 2: pH, Cooking yield, Shear force value and Water activity (aw) of restructured chicken meat blocks extended with different levels of colocasia (Mean ± S.E.)*.
|Parameters||Control||Colocasia levels (%, hydrated 1:1)|
|Moisture (%)||70.03 ± 0.91||70.50 ± 0.89||70.52 ± 0.37||70.76 ± 0.42|
|Protein (%)||20.10 ± 0.49 a||19.06 ± 0.39 ab||18.66 ± 0.39 b||17.98 ± 0.39 b|
|Moisture protein ratio||3.5 ± 0.08||3.53 ± 0.07||3.55 ± 0.07||3.69 ± 0.08|
|Fat (%)||6.48 ± 0.13 a||6.18 ± 0.05 a||5.80 ± 0.22 ab||5.35 ± 0.33 b|
|Ash (%)||2.89 ± 0.11 a||3.13 ± 0.03 b||3.38 ± 0.01 c||3.61 ± 0.01 d|
*Mean ± S.E. with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05), n1 (CY) =3, n2 (Proximate parameter) =6.
Table 3: Proximate composition restructured chicken meat blocks extended with different levels of colocasia (Mean ± S.E.).
Moisture percentage showed significantly increasing (P>0.05) values with the increasing extender level in comparison to control, which might be due to increasing water retention with increase in level of colocasia flour. There was significantly (P>0.05) decreased protein percentage in treatment products in comparison to control, though among the treatments, comparable values were noticed. Fat percentage recorded gradual decrease in product with increasing level of HCF which could be due to the replacement of lean meat with flour rich in carbohydrate. There was significant decrease (P>0.05) in ash percentage in treatment products with increasing level of extender. Moisture to protein ratio of all treatments did not differ significantly (P>0.05) with control.
Mean sensory scores of the product incorporated with different levels of HCF viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% are presented in table 4. Among sensory attributes, scores for general appearance increased significantly (P>0.05) for treatment products with 5 and 7.5% extender, in comparison to control, for flavor all the treatment products showed a significantly higher (P>0.05) values in comparison to control and the product with 5% HCF scored highest (7.17). The binding of the product with 5% extender showed significantly (P>0.05) increased value in comparison to control but all other values were comparable among each other. The texture of the treatment products, showed significantly increased (P>0.05) values in comparison to control whereas the maximum value (7.25) was found in products with 7.5% HCF. The juiciness for the treatment products with 7.5% extender scored higher in comparison to control. The mean scores for overall acceptability of treatment products increased in comparison to control but the product with 7.5% HCF showed significantly increased (P>0.05) value.
|Attributes||Control||Colocasia levels (%, hydrated 1:1)|
|General appearance||6.80 ± 0.11a||7.26 ± 0.05b||7.21 ± 0.05b||6.70 ± 0.08a|
|Flavor||6.38 ± 0.06a||7.17 ± 0.06b||7.08 ± 0.08b||6.72 ± 0.09c|
|Binding||6.59 ± 0.17a||7.23 ± 0.08b||6.86 ± 0.09a||6.47 ± 0.15a|
|Texture||6.09 ± 0.12a||7.15 ± 0.07b||7.25 ± 0.59b||6.88 ± 0.68c|
|Juiciness||6.90 ± 0.07||6.86 ± 0.05||7.22 ± 0.06||6.75 ± 0.09|
|Overall acceptability||6.83 ± 0.11ab||7.01 ± 0.07bc||7.22 ± 0.05c||6.61 ± 0.51a|
*Mean ± S.E. with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05), n=22 for each treatment.
Table 4: Sensory attributes of restructured chicken meat blocks extended with different levels of colocasia (Mean ± S.E.).
Texture profile analysis
The results of instrumental texture profile analysis for extended restructured chicken meat block incorporated with different levels of HCF as well as control are presented in table 5. All the treatment products had higher hardness values and showed an increasing trend with the increasing level of extender but all the values were comparable. Increased hardness value could be due to gelling and binding nature of vegetative extender. The increase of the hardness value due to the increase of the carbohydrate content was also reported by Huang et al.  in pork meatballs. Adhesiveness of treatment products showed a significantly (P<0.05) lower values in comparison to control and an increasing trend was observed among treat products with the increasing level of HCF incorporation. The springiness value of the products with 5 and 10 % extender level showed a higher value in comparison to control whereas the cohesiveness values of treatment products decreased in comparison to control. The gumminess of product recorded being significantly higher (P<0.05) in comparison to control in the product with 5 and 10% HCP except the products containing 7.5% level of extender which was comparable with control. Mean value for chewiness of the treatment products increased but the valued were comparable among each other. Resilience of treatment products showed a decreasing trend in comparison to control but ware comparable among each other.
|Attributes||Control||Colocasia levels (%, hydrated 1:1)|
|Hardness (N/cm2)||31.35 ± 4.18||36.29 ± 0.45||37.66 ± 2.98||35.58 ± 4.69|
|Adhesiveness (NS/gm)||1.57 ± 0.07a||-0.91 ± 0.01b||-0.69 ± 0.46c||-0.24 ± 0.07d|
|Springiness (Cm/mm)||0.24 ± 0.01||0.25 ± 0.00||0.23 ± 0.00||0.30 ± 0.06|
|Cohesiveness||0.39 ± 0.03||0.36 ± 0.01||0.29 ± 0.03||0.32 ± 0.04|
|Gumminess (N/cm2)||11.23 ± 0.23a||13.27 ± 0.51bc||11.92 ± 0.31ab||13.80 ± 0.62c|
|Chewiness (N/cm)||3.57 ± 0.16||4.06 ± 0.45||4.71 ± 0.68||5.36 ± 1.08|
|Resilience||0.16 ± 0.02||0.13 ± 0.00||0.12 ± 0.02||0.12 ± 0.02|
*Mean ± S.E. with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05), n=22 for each treatment.
Table 5: Texture Profile of functional restructured chicken slices with optimum level of colocasia (Mean ± S.E.).
Mean values for pH and microbiological characteristics of the treatments and control meat blocks during 15 days of refrigeration storage, are presented in table 6.
|Attributes||Refrigerated storage period (Days)|
|Control||6.23 ± 0.001||6.25 ± 0.02||6.26 ± 0.00||6.26 ± 0.0212|
|5%||6.17 ± 0.0112||6.20 ± 0.01||6.21 ± 0.04||6.23 ± 0.011|
|7.5%||6.15 ± 0.03a2||6.21 ± 0.00ab||6.26 ± 0.00b||6.27 ± 0.01b12|
|10%||6.21 ± 0.00ab12||6.20 ± 0.03a||6.25 ± 0.02ab||6.28 ± 0.00b2|
|Total Plate Count (log10 cfu/gm)|
|Control||0.36 ± 0.06||1.55 ± 0.0412||1.86 ± 0.0312||2.31 ± 0.081|
|5%||0.41 ± 0.06a||1.54 ± 0.09b12||1.62 ± 0.15b1||2.49 ± 0.04c12|
|7.5%||0.42 ± 0.11a||1.66 ± 0.00b2||1.87 ± 0.02c12||2.66 ± 0.03d23|
|10%||0.50 ± 0.02||1.44 ± 0.021||2.08 ± 0.032||2.70 ± 0.033|
|Psychrophilic count (log10 cfu/gm)|
|Control||Not Detected||0.83 ± 0.031||1.46 ± 0.0312||2.48 ± 0.03|
|5%||Not Detected||0.88 ± 0.03a1||1.39 ± 0.05b1||2.51 ± 0.09c|
|7.5%||Not Detected||0.82 ± 0.02a1||1.58 ± 0.04b2||2.61 ± 0.00c|
|10%||Not Detected||1.09 ± 0.03a2||1.57 ± 0.03b2||2.62 ± 0.03c|
|Coliform count (log10 cfu/gm)|
|Control||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected|
|5%||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected|
|7.5%||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected|
|10%||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected||Not Detected|
*Mean ± S.E. with different superscripts letter in a row and different superscripts number in a column differ significantly (P<0.05), n=6 for each treatment.
Table 6: Effect of refrigerated storage on pH and microbiological characteristics of aerobically packaged extended restructured chicken meat blocks with different levels of colocasia (Mean ± S.E.).
The pH values of control and 5% HCF added products showed gradual increase with increasing storage period. The product with 7.5% extension showed significantly higher values (P<0.05) on 10th day onwards where as the product incorporated with 10% extender, pH values increased from 10th day onward in comparison to control. There was significantly (P<0.05) decreased pH value in 7.5% HCF added products on 0th day but other values on this day were comparable with control. All the values of control and treatment products were comparable among each other on 5th day onward of storage. The increase in pH might be attributed to hydrolysis of collagen molecules which released amino group in meat system . Similar observation was found by Anandh and Lakshmanan  in refrigerated stored (4 ± 1°C) of smoked buffalo tripe roles.
Total plate count
Total plate count for control and the product with10% extender followed a gradual but insignificant increasing trend through whole refrigerated storage period, but in treatment products with 5 and 7.5% HCF, showed a significant (P>0.05) increment in comparison to control, however these counts were well below the permissible limit i.e. log107 cfu/g for cooked meat products . However, on 5th day there was significantly lowered (P>0.05) count noticed with the product incorporated with 10% HCF, whereas TPC were significantly higher (P>0.05) in the products with 7.5 and 10% HCF addition on 15th day of storage. TPC of control and treatment product always remained below log10 5.33cfu/g during the storage period which is indicative of unacceptability of cooked meat products .
Psychrophilic microbes were not detected on 0 day of storage either in control or treatment products which could be due to destruction of psychrophiles during cooking. These counts were detected on 5th day of storage and thereafter, it increased significantly (P<0.05) on 10th and 15th day of storage in control and all the treatment products. This could be due to the recovery of injured organisms and then multiplication during subsequent period of storage. Psychrophillic counts increased gradually with the storage period and significant difference was observed between the count of 5th, 10th and 15th day storage. The Psychrophillic count was significantly higher (P>0.05) in 10% HCF added product in comparison to control and other treatment products on 5th day of storage. However, a comparatively faster growth of psychrophiles in the treatment product might be attributed to the presence of easy source of carbohydrates. Psychrophilic counts always remained within the permissible limits of log104.6 cfu/g as reported by  in cooked meat products. The limit of psychrotrophic counts have been reported as log104cfu/g  that could cause microbiological spoilage of stored meat product.
Coliforms were not detected during the entire storage period in control as well as in treatment products with different level of HCF due to cooking of product to an internal temperature of 72°C, which might have been lethal to the coliforms and was depicting the good hygienic practices obtained during and after preparation of products, Sachdev and Gopal  observed similar findings in cooked chicken rolls.
Easily cultivable and economically viable colocasia is a good source of nutrients and is full of carbohydrates which can be harnessed as a starchy vegetable instead of potato and other conventional food items. The utilization of colocasia as a food ingredient has been proved previously and it was well accepted therefore, incorporation of colocasia as an extender in processed meat product like extended restructured chicken meat block, can be done effectively as it can improve the nutritional, functional and sensory characters of the finished products. The chicken meat block has been formulated by adding hydrated colocasia flour in such a way that the cooking yield of the products has increased significantly, which in turn enhanced the economical gain of the processing. The ERCB prepared with 7.5% colocasia were assessed and found suitable for sensory attributes and microbiological quality and could be safely stored under refrigeration (4 ± 1°C) in LDPE pouches for 15 days without marked deterioration in quality and were well accepted. Therefore it can be jugged that the incorporation of colocasia into restructured meat formulation will improve the functional, nutritional and sensory quality as well as acceptability of the product, which in turn make the product processing economically viable.
The authors would also like to acknowledge the help and support of Md. Sarfaraz, Fresh meat technology laboratory, LPT, IVRI in completing the work in time.