Received date: August 16, 2012; Accepted date:September 21, 2012; Published date: September 28, 2012
Citation: Boghani AH, Raheem A, Hashmi SI (2012) Development and Storage Studies of Blended Papaya-Aloe vera Ready to Serve (RTS) Beverage. J Food Process Technol 3:185. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000185
Copyright: © 2012 Boghani AH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Journal of Food Processing & Technology
An experiment was conducted to study the feasibility of blending papaya and Aloe vera juice in different ratio for preparation of blended Ready-to-Serve (RTS) beverage and assess their storage life at ambient temperature. The prepared blended RTS were organoleptically evaluated by adopting 9 point hedonic scale. Among different blended ratio for RTS beverage, sample with 5 and 10 percent of Aloe vera juice reached the highest hedonic scores. It was also found that prepared blended RTS beverage could be successfully storage at refrigerated temperature for the period of 3 months without significant changes in chemical and senatorial quality profile.
Blended RTS beverage; Papaya; Aloe vera; Storage studies
Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit belongs to species in genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae, widely distributed throughout the tropics including India. It is known as common man’s fruit due to its reasonable price and high nutritive value due to presence of in vitamins and minerals. Traditionally it has been used in preparation of salads, sherbets, juice and confections like tutti-fruiti, candy slices (Murabba), etc [1,2]. Papaya is of explicit quality with great nutritional, medicinal, organoleptic, economic and traditional importance. It is available in plenty during a particular season but all have not been utilized to desired extent. Beside available traditional food products, it could be utilized in development of Fast Moving Consumer Good like RTS beverage. However, Consumer trend towards papaya products emphasize the need of its value enhancement with fortification of novel ingredients to promote it as a high valued product.
Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) belongs to Lileacea family traditional being utilized as contemporary folk remedy . There are over 250 species of Aloe vera grown around the world; However only two species viz. A. barbadensis Miller and A. aborescens are considered the most potent ones .
Present dietary scenario necessitates exploring the possibility of incorporating novel ingredients in commonly consumed foods rather than developing new food product . Food or beverage which has physiological benefits beyond basic nutrition is being preferred now a day to reduction of risk of chronic diseases. There is, a proliferation of these value-added products aimed at not only keeping oneself healthy but also prevention/treatment of various ailments ranging from heart diseases to cancer. India can capitalize on consumers’ interest in functional food by considering the major research in this area and developing the functional food or beverages from the sources which are cheaply available .
Recent scientific investigations on medicinal properties of Aloe vera made it worldwide novel valuable ingredient for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In food industry, it has been used as a ingredient for functional foods development and production of gelcontaining health drinks and beverages. In the cosmetic and toiletry industry, it has been used as base for creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, facial cleansers and other products . It is being extensively preferred as a natural product with medicinal and therapeutic properties .
Fresh Aloe vera leaves used to obtain two components, firstly bitter yellow latex from peripheral budle sheeth of aloe, called Aloe vera sap and a mucilaginous gel from parenchymatous tissue. The interest and use of gel has increased dramatically in the field of health care and cosmetics . It can be utilized as a valuable ingredient for food application due to its biological activities and functional properties . Aloe vera has a bitter taste which can be unpleasant in raw state and its palatability could be enhanced with addition of some other fruit juices.
Fruit beverages are well enjoyed by all age groups of the society . Blended drinks are good alternative for development of new products to provide benefit of taste, nutrition as well as medicinal properties. In has been proposed in the past to utilize Aloe vera gel in the formulation of a blended beverage. Hence, present work was carried to optimize level of Aloe vera juice and papaya juice incorporation in development of blended beverage with desirable characteristics.
The freshly ripe papaya fruits were collected in peak June month. Fruits were washed thoroughly in running water. Fruits were peeled with the help of stainless steel knife, cut into two half and seeds and were removed manually. The pulp was grind in laboratory scale mixer grinder and filtered through double muslin cloth and enzymatically treated with the 0.65% pectinase enzyme concentration for 230 min as optimized by  to obtain papaya juice which was stored as refrigerated temperature until further use.
Aloe vera juice
The chemical composition of juices depends majorly upon the method of juice extraction . Aloe vera gel was extracted using cold extraction method and processed into juice as per the method reported by . Freshly harvested Aloe vera leaves were dipped into 500 ppm KMS solution and washed thoroughly with tap water and kept for flash cooling to 5oC for gel stabilization. Further leaves were cut vertically into two half and gel was separated using stainless steel knife, it was allowed to settle for 12 hrs and then homogenized using mixer grinder and enzymatically treated with 1% pectolytic enzyme at 50°C for 20 minutes. Then it was filtered and pH was adjusted to 3.0 by adding citric acid and ascorbic acid to control browning. Further it was dearated, pasteurized, flash cooled and stored. The obtained juice was stored refrigerated temperature until further use.
Physico-chemical properties of papaya juice, Aloe vera juice and RTS beverage were determined by the methods.
Blended RTS beverage Preparation
Blended RTS beverages were prepared using 12% TSS, 0.3% acidity and 10% blended juices of different blending ratio of 95% papaya juice + 5% Aloe vera juice (A), 90% papaya juice + 10% Aloe vera juice (B), 85% papaya juice + 15% Aloe vera juice (C), 80% papaya Juice + 20% Aloe vera juice (D) and controlled RTS containing 100% papaya juice without Aloe vera (Control). Best blended RTS was selected by organoleptic test which was conducted on 9 Point Hedonic Scale for appearance, colour, taste, flavour and overall acceptability by a panel of 25 semi-trained judges having prior experience of sensory evaluation of fruits and vegetable product.
Flowchart for preparation of Papaya and Aloe vera blended RTS beverage
The RTS beverage with best blending ratio (on the basis of sensorial evaluation) were packed in glass bottles and kept at refrigerated storage temperature and changes were determined during storage at monthly intervals up to 4 months. TSS, pH and acidity during storage was measured by standard method and overall acceptability was measured on 9 Point Hedonic Scale by 25 semi-trained panel members.
The results obtained during present investigation are presented and discussed under suitable headings in view of available relevant scientific literature.
Yield of Aloe vera gel
The Aloe vera gel is relatively new novel ingredient for processing into beverages. Hence, it was preferred to collected the data pertaining to yield of gel from different structure and leaf and obtained resulted are presented in (Table 1).
|Sr. No.||Structure of leaf||Physical properties|
|Weight of leaf (g)||Weight of gel (g)||Gel yield (%)|
|2||Small thick bottom||108.3||44.03||40.76|
*Each value is average of 10 determinations
Table 1: Yield of Aloe vera gel from different structure leaves.
It is observed from (Table 1) that long developed Aloe vera leaves recorded maximum weight (112.7g) as gel yield (42.73%) while minimum weight of leaf (82.09g), weight of gel (23.93g) and gel yield (29.18%) was recorded for medium spotted leaves. The difference in leave structures and gel yield may be due to different growing stages and maturity profile of Aloe vera leaves. On the basis of obtained results, it could be suggested that long fully developed Aloe vera leaves should be preferred for extraction of gel for maximum yield.
Compositional profile of Papaya and Aloe vera juice
Prepared papaya juice and Aloe vera juice were analyzed for their proximate composition and the obtained results are depicted in (Table 2).
|Sr. No.||Constituent||Papaya juice||Aloe vera juice|
|1||Moisture (%)||89. 05||97.34|
|5||Fibres (total dietary) (%)||1.02||---|
|6||Total Carbohydrates (%)||9.37||0.92|
*Each value is average of minimum three determinations
Table 2: Composition of Papaya and aloe vera juice.
Chemical properties of Papaya and Aloe vera juice
Chemical properties of juice have direct effect on ultimate quality and storage stability of Ready-To-Serve (RTS) beverages . Papaya juice was analyzed for different chemical properties such as pH, reducing sugar, acidity, TSS and total sugar while analysis of total sugar and reducing sugar content of Aloe vera juice was avoided to due expected negligible values as it contained very low total carbohydrates. The obtained data on chemical properties of papaya and Aloe vera juice is presented in (Table 3).
|Sr. No.||Constituent||Papaya juice||Aloe vera juice|
|2||Reducing sugar (%)||4.63||---|
|3||Acidity (% citric acid)||0.14||1.23|
|5||Total sugar (%)||8.12||---|
*Each value is average of 3 determinations
Table 3: Chemical properties of papaya pulp and aloe vera gel.
It could be observed from the (Table 3) that Aloe vera juice falls under the category of acidic food while papaya juice is observed to be medium acidic food. TSS of papaya juice was observed to be 10.2°bx while Aloe vera juice was found to contain very low TSS (i.e. 2.1°Bx). It could be predicted that papaya juice remains major contributor of total solids content of final beverage. The reducing sugar and total sugar content of Aloe vera juice was not analyzed due to the consideration of negligible outcome. The obtained results pertaining to chemical properties of papaya juice remained in close agreements with the results of .
|Sr. No||Storage period (month)||TSS (oBrix)||Acidity (%)||pH||Overall acceptability|
*Values of TSS, acidity and pH are average of 3 determinations while organoleptic score value is average of minimum 25 evaluations
Table 4: Changes in physico-chemical and overall acceptability of papaya-aloe vera based RTS beverage during storage.
Organoleptic quality of blended RTS beverage
Organoleptic quality characteristics of blended RTS beverage were determined on 9 Point Hedonic Scale and presented in (Figure 1).
It could be observed from the Figure-1 that appearance of beverage improved with increase in concentration of Aloe vera juice up to the level of 10% while further increase in Aloe vera juice content reduced the appearance profile. The colour decreased gradually with increase in concentration of Aloe vera juice incorporation and controlled sample secured maximum score for colour. The taste profile remained more or less similar up to 10% concentration of Aloe vera jucie while further increase in Aloe vera juice concentration resulted in drastic reduction of taste due to imparted bitterness. Flavour profile of sample A and B found to be superior to that of control sample, this may be due to improvement mouth feel of product by Aloe vera juice while further increase resulted in decrease in flavour. Overall acceptability was calculated considering the average of all the organoleptic parameters and it was observed that Sample B containing 10% Aloe vera juice was preferred by the judges.
Changes during Storage
The data on changes in chemical properties and overall acceptability of papaya-Aloe vera RTS beverage during 4 months of storage is presented in (Table 4).
Results pertaining to chemical changes during storage revealed that total soluble solids increased gradually during storage. Increase in TSS during storage might be attributed in conversion of polysaccharides and other constituents of juice into sugar . Acidity of beverage decreased with increase in storage period similar increase in acidity during storage has been reported by . The pH of beverage could be correlated inversely with the acidity of product and found to decrease with increase in storage as reported by . Variations in pH during storage may be due to change in chemical properties which are affected by storage conditions .
The sensory quality profile of beverage is a prime factor to consider the marketability of product. During storage, it was observed that overall sensorial quality profile of RTS beverage slightly decreased during storage of 3 months yet remained under the consideration of “Like very much” by panel members. However, after 4 month the overall acceptability felt to “Like moderately”. Decrease is sensorial profile of RTS beverage during storage is also reported in other investigators [11,17,19,20].
In present investigation, efforts were made to developed blended RTS beverage using papaya and Aloe vera juice. Long developed Aloe vera leaves were found suitable for extraction of gel due to its higher yield (42.73%). Papaya and Aloe vera juice contained high moisture while papaya dominated in its reducing sugar, TSS and total sugar content. Sensory evaluation revealed that Aloe vera gel could be successfully incorporated in development of Blended RTS beverage with improved sensorial quality profile up to the level of 10%. The storage studies revealed that blended papaya-Aloe vera gel could be successfully stored for the period of 3 months without significant in chemical and organoleptic qualities.