alexa Diagnostic Ultrasound Safety | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2157-7420
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics
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Diagnostic Ultrasound Safety

Kazuo Maeda*

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Emeritus),Tottori University Medical School, Yonago, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Kazuo Maeda
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Emeritus)
Tottori University Medical School, Yonago, Japan, 3-125
Nadamachi, Yonago, Tottoriken, 6830835, Japan
Tel: 81-859-22-6856
Fax: 81-859-22-6856
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 10, 2013; Accepted date: December 18, 2013; Published date: December 25, 2013

Citation: Maeda K (2013) Diagnostic Ultrasound Safety. J Health Med Informat 4:139. doi: 10.4172/2157-7420.1000139

Copyright: © 2013 Maeda K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Although no adverse effect of ultrasound diagnosis has been reported, the safety of diagnostic ultrasound has been discussed since its introduction into clinical study in 1950s, because real-time 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound imaging, pulsed Doppler flow wave, color Doppler, fetal monitor, fetal movement, are indispensable in obstetric and gynecologic studies, particularly in the studies on the fetus.

Introduction

Although no adverse effect of ultrasound diagnosis has been reported, the safety of diagnostic ultrasound has been discussed since its introduction into clinical study in 1950s, because real-time 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound imaging, pulsed Doppler flow wave, color Doppler, fetal monitor, fetal movement, are indispensable in obstetric and gynecologic studies, particularly in the studies on the fetus.

For example of rumor, Ian Donald listened that the hearing difficulty of children was caused by his ultrasound study in 1950s, butthe truth was that nohearing difficulty children had been received ultrasound study in the city [1]. It was reported once that frequent antepartum ultrasound resultedsmall neonates, however, it is usual that small fetuses were repeatedlystudied byultrasound; therefore it is naturalto see small neonates. There was no increase of neonatal malformation after the introduction of obstetric ultrasound [2]. The left handedness was reported after fetal ultrasonic studies, but the result was insignificant [3]. Although it wasreported moderate ultrasound developed fetal animal anomaly, no anomaly appeared after the exposure to similarintensity ultrasound, where the heat of ultrasound oscillatory elementdid not reach pregnant animal through 37°C stabilized water, while ultrasound propagated to subjects [4]. Attachment of electrically heated ultrasound element might heat the fetusin the report to develop anomaly, because fetal anomalies developed by high temperature [5]. The sister chromatid exchange developed after ultrasound exposure, but the change appeared by the effect of toxic substance produced by the degradation of plastic cellcontainer, but not by the ultrasound in double check experiments.

It was recently reported that the neuronal cell migration of fetal mice brainwas disturbed by the exposure to the ultrasound of commercial real-time 2D imaging device for longer than 30 min [6]. Therefore, it may be recommended to limit fetalhead exposure to ultrasound less than 30 min in clinical study. Since the probe attached the pregnant mice during exposure in the experiment, the double check will be doneinserting 37°C stabilized water between the probe and pregnant mice.

In another recent report, reversible increase of hepatic apoptotic activity in fetal rats after 20 or more sec exposure of ductsvenous to the weak pulsed Doppler ultrasound 7 h after the exposure [7]. Since the change was transient,we would like to hear ante-and postnatal states of exposed fetuses to the Doppler for more than 20 sec. ISUOG, however, published a statement on the safe use of Doppler in 11 to13+6-week fetal ultrasound examination, which will be introduced later in this article [8].

Someone was responsible to the safety of diagnostic ultrasound in the past, e.g. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) suggested the output intensity to be lower than SPTA 100 mW/cm2, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated it below 350 mW/ cm2. After discussions however, the ultrasound user is responsible for the safety of diagnostic ultrasound, i.e. the user should knowthermal and mechanical indices of device ultrasound at the monitor screen, and controls high output intensity to low, and the exposure duration is also controlled by the user. There is ALARA principle that is “as low as reasonably achievable”, i.e. the ultrasound intensity should be as low as possible if the diagnosis is achieved. Adiagnostic ultrasound user should know ultrasound physics, device function mechanisms, thermal and mechanical indices, the statements of ultrasound organizations, and so on.

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