alexa Drugs Needed for Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis | OMICS International
ISSN: 2157-7609
Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Drugs Needed for Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis

Rais Ansari*

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Health Professions Division, Nova Southeastern University, 3200 S University Drive, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Rais Ansari
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
College of Pharmacy, Health Professions Division
Nova Southeastern University, 3200 S University Drive
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
Tel: 954-262-1344
Fax: 954-262-2278
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 19, 2013; Accepted Date: June 22, 2013; Published Date: June 24, 2013

Citation: Ansari R (2013) Drugs Needed for Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis. J Drug Metab Toxicol 4:e117. doi: 10.4172/2157-7609.1000e117

Copyright: © 2013 Ansari R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

A number of chemicals including most commonly used and abused agent, alcohol, are the cause of progression of liver from hepatosteatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis to cirrhosis [1]. The earliest symptoms of alcohol toxicity are treatable involvingcessation of drinking and modifications of diet. The initial exposure of liver after either binge or chronic alcohol drinking, results in liver injury especially hepatocytes death. Due to death of hepatocytes, the level of enzymes, transaminases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in serum is elevated and biosynthesis of bile salts and its derivatives are affected. The rise in the blood level of alkaline phosphatase is the indicator of affected bile acid biosynthesis and its secretion from liver. The dead hepatocytes are replaced with scarring tissues resulting in loss of liver functions, including drug metabolism, secretions of proteins from liver, decreased albumin level and changes in the blood clotting time. The metabolism of drugs like acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could also be affected. The bilirubin metabolism occurs in liver and due to affected liver function, its clearance is also affected. In alcohol mediated hepatitis, the level of bilirubin is increased in the blood and is an indicator of jaundice. Liver cirrhosis mediated death is linked to usage of alcohol. According to the several published reports, the highest number of deaths due to alcohol mediated cirrhosis occurs in countries like Spain, France and Italy where highest amount of alcohol is consumed compare to many other industrialized western countries including USA. It is difficult to estimate the incidence of liver cirrhosis as it remains silent till patients develops the symptoms of liver failure. It is estimated that liver cirrhosis occurs in 2 individuals per 100,000 individuals.

Chronic alcohol drinking leading liver to cirrhosis has a genetic component as well. Not all alcohol abusers and chronic alcoholics progress to liver cirrhosis. Some of likely genetic markers of alcohol mediated liver toxicity to end stage liver cirrhosis have been studied. However, predicting an individual of progression from hepatosteatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis to cirrhosis is still difficult. Liver cirrhosis is an irreversible condition and goals for the available treatments are slowing the progression of disease and further complications. There are no drugs that can reverse and treat liver cirrhosis. Researchers are investigating the efficacy of several antifibrotic agents which can block the fibrosis of liver, a condition before the scarring of liver tissue. Fibrosis is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblasts have been the excessive source of ECM. Counteracting the synthesis and secretion of ECM molecules is the focus of antifibrotic agent. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is implicated in fibrosis and blocking TGFβ ameliorates the experimental fibrosis. However, TGFβ independent fibrosis mediated by cytokines can also occur in liver. Two humanized antibodies against TGFβ, one by Genzyme (GC1008) and Lilly (LY2382770) are under clinical trials at phase I and Phase II respectively for non-liver fibrosis (Clinical Trials. gov). Antibodies against other important molecules are targeted for many other organ fibrosis [2]. Another approach of the treatment could be degradation of ECM molecules. Collagen, a component deposited during fibrosis can be degraded by matrix metalloproteinases and experimentally increasing the expression of such metalloproteinases like MMP-8 has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of fibrosis in experimental models [3]. Another approach could be application of microRNAs (miRNA) or miRNA mimetics but delivery of such agents is a challenging task for the current scientists. Patients with liver cirrhosis are recommended for screening of liver cancer and one of the markers of liver cancer; a-fetoprotein in blood [4] in addition to imaging test which includes ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computerized tomography (CT) scan can be employed. In spite of development, there are not that many options for the treatment of liver cirrhosis; transplant of the liver is the only solution. There is an immediate need for the development of drugs which can block the progression of liver from fibrosis to cirrhosis and reverse the process for the growth of hepatocytes which can replace the scarred tissue thus restoring the liver function.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 14033
  • [From(publication date):
    May-2013 - Dec 15, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 10178
  • PDF downloads : 3855

Review summary

  1. kateN
    Posted on Feb 02 2017 at 7:43 am
    i want to share this great and wonderful testimony to the general public on how i got cured from my sickness called (HEPATITIS B) by DR OGUN healing herbal medicine , I have been suffering from (HEPATITIS B) for good 6 years now and I was almost going to the end of my life due to the constant pain, especially in my LIVER . all I have in my mind is let me just give up because life was no longer intestine to me any more but I just pray to God every day to accept my soul when ever I die, luckily to me , my kid sister ran to me that she found a doctor in the internet who can cure (HEPATITIS B, HERPES,CANCER, and HIV/AIDS ) she helped me out on everything, the great Dr OGUN only ask for my Details and some items , so that he can prepare a Herbal medicine for me and send it to me in my country , which i did.. so after two days of getting the medicine and taking it as prescribe to me from him , I started getting more stronger my blood started flowing normally , i started experiencing changes all over my Body as the great DR OGUN assured me that i should go for medical check up that i have been cured, so after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed , behold it was TRUE and i was very Happy ,so if you have HERPES , HEPATITIS B ,CANCER , HIV/AIDS or any kind of sickness YOU HAVE , you can contact him and, any illness get cured, i advice you all to contact himon Via mail at ([email protected]) whatsapp number +2349071799626 Good luck.
  2. kateN
    Posted on Jan 17 2017 at 2:01 pm
    i want to share this great and wonderful testimony to the general public on how i got cured from my sickness called (HEPATITIS B) by DR OGUN healing herbal medicine , I have been suffering from (HEPATITIS B) for good 6 years now and I was almost going to the end of my life due to the constant pain, especially in my LIVER . all I have in my mind is let me just give up because life was no longer intestine to me any more but I just pray to God every day to accept my soul when ever I die, luckily to me , my kid sister ran to me that she found a doctor in the internet who can cure (HEPATITIS B, HERPES,CANCER, and HIV/AIDS ) she helped me out on everything, the great Dr OGUN only ask for my Details and some items , so that he can prepare a Herbal medicine for me and send it to me in my country , which i did.. so after two days of getting the medicine and taking it as prescribe to me from him , I started getting more stronger my blood started flowing normally , i started experiencing changes all over my Body as the great DR OGUN assured me that i should go for medical check up that i have been cured, so after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed , behold it was TRUE and i was very Happy ,so if you have HERPES , HEPATITIS B ,CANCER , HIV/AIDS or any kind of sickness YOU HAVE , you can contact him and, any illness get cured, i advice you all to contact himon Via mail at ([email protected]) whatsapp number +2349071799626 Good luck.
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version