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Description of the country:
Saudi Arabia officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an Arab state in Western Asia. Saudi Arabia is called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" as it hosts Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia.
Geography of the country:
Saudi Arabia is a desert country encompassing most of the Arabian Peninsula, with Red Sea and Persian (Arabian) Gulf coastlines and it is the 5th -largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen to the south. Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrubland. Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with extremely high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night.
Status of economy, research and development:
Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer and exporter as well as the world's second largest oil reserves, and the sixth largest gas reserves. The kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index, and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. Saudi Arabia's most economy is petroleum-based and mostly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
Saudi Arabia encourages the research in Earth Sciences and hosts five research institutes, two universities and a society purely for the extensive research on Earth Sciences. The novel researches and developments taking place in the area of earth sciences are well exhibited in the conferences. Many scholars in the country exhibit their research through publishing articles in many advanced and innovative earth science journals. Saudi Arabia is one of the world's fastest improvers with a marked increase in research articles. Several leading Institution in the country including King Abdulaziz University and others are spearheading the Earth Sciences research.