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ISSN: 2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology

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Effect of By-product Incorporation on Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality and Shelf Life of Buffalo Meat Fermented Sausage

S Ahmad*, Javed A Rizawi, MS Khan and PK Srivastava

Department of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India

*Corresponding Author:
Ahmad S
Department of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
Tel: 09412601092
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: October 03, 2012; Accepted date: October 27, 2012; Published date: November 07, 2012

Citation: Ahmad S, Rizawi JA, Khan MS, Srivastava PK (2012) Effect of By-product Incorporation on Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality and Shelf Life of Buffalo Meat Fermented Sausage. J Food Process Technol 3:195. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000195

Copyright: © 2012 Ahmad S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Studies were conducted on production quality (physicochemical and microbiological) evaluation and shelf life of buffalo meat semi dry fermented sausage. Physicochemical characteristics were based on pH, moisture content, and TBA number, while the microbiological characteristics were dependent on total plate count and yeast and mold count. pH of six samples of fermented sausages incorporated with different levels of by- product (heart, kidney and liver) was found in the range of 5.10-5.16in fresh condition. This reduction of pH was due to the fermentation carried out by the culture of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents of sausages samples were in the range of 44.1-45.5. This lowering down of moisture content was due to smoking and dying which was done in succession as the part of production. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number is physicochemical property which defines the oxidation states of the fat present in the sausage. TBA values were all six samples of found 0.102-0.140. TPC and Yeast and mold count of the sausage sample express in log cfu/g was not detected in fresh condition. Storage study under refrigerated storage condition (4°C) revealed that pH value and moisture content of buffalo meat semidry fermented sausage decreased consistently while TBA number was found to increase during 75 days of storage at the end of storage (for 75 days). The TBA was found in the 0.211-0.230. TBA values were found in the safe limit even after 75 days of storage. TPC and Yeast & mold count was found in the range 4.10-4.38 and 3.59-4.02 respectively. This indicated shelf life of buffalo meat semi dry fermented sausage incorporated by products was at least 75 days at 4°C. 

Keywords

Semidry fermented sausage; By-products; Physicochemical & microbiological; Shelf life; Storage study

Introduction

Sausages are food that are prepared from comminution and seasoned meat and are usually formed into symmetrical shape. The word sausage means salted or meat preserve by salting. The role of fermentation as a means of food preservation and food conservation is well established. Virtues of food fermentation were listed as it preserves the raw material at low cost, reduces fuel demand by reducing cooking time, enhances nutritional quality by improving digestibility, protein value and vitamin content, destroy toxic or undesirable components and harmful bacteria, protects against reinfection adds positive antibacterial components and improve appearance, aroma, flavour and texture [1]. Two basic technologies are known for the preparation of fermented sausage, based on, at the one side a short (Western Europe). The safety and shelf life of the fermented product is of prime importance because of possible presence of pathogenic bacteria, virus, parasites or even mold spores on the sausage ingredients, equipments or processing personnel’s, staphylococcus food poising may be caused by a heat stable enterotoxin produced during the growth of food pathogen like salmonella shigella or e.coli strains, nitrite curing with LAB starter cultures, quality of meat and meat products is widely evaluated by measuring nutritional, sensory texture and microbiological parameters. Buffalo meat can be utilized for development of the sausage. The fermented sausage is self stable product and they can be very well preserved under refrigeration condition. Therefore investigation was carried out to study the effect of incorporation of by products on physicochemical, microbiological quality of buffalo meat fermented sausage.

Materials and Methods

Meat samples collected from the local meat shop in the study were from buffaloes slaughtered according to traditional halal method at slaughterhouse of municipal corporation, Aligarh. The animals were kept in lairage for a period of 18-20 hours. Meat samples from round portion (biceps fermoris muscle) of 2.5, 3 and 3.5 years aged female carcasses of good finish were obtained from meat shop within 4 hr. of slaughter. Buffalo fat from brisket and back and buffalo heart were also procured along with other meat ingredients. Other non-meat ingredients like spices, salt, condiments, casings and HDPE film were also procured from the local market. The meat, fat and heart were kept inside ultra low temperature cabinet (Yarco, India) at 2°C for about 20 hours.

Preparations of semi dry fermented sausage

Fermented sausages (semi dry type) were prepared from comminuted mixture of meat, offal, fat salt spices, condiments and sugar using mixed culture of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The recipe was kept as: meat (1.0 kg), fat (200g), heart (150 g), spicemix (10 g), salt (30 gm), garlic paste (20 g), Sugar (10 g), dextrose (5.5 g), sodium nitrate (0.25 g), monosodium glutamate (1.2 g) and mixed culture of L. brevis and L. plantarum (0.5%). Buffalo meat, heart and fat were ground in a grinder (PRS Technologies, India). Then ground buffalo meat, heart and fat was transferred to bowl cutter and chopped for 2 min. Other ingredients viz. spicemix garlic paste, sugar and dextrose were added and further mixed in a mixer (PRS Tech., India) for 5 min. Mixed culture were added at the very end of mixing. The mass was well mixed and finally placed in a shallow pan and held under refrigeration temperature (7°C) for 2 days to enable curing process and stabilization of micro flora. The presence of air pocket in the pan was avoided and was excluded during kneading. After remixing again the mix was transferred and packed in the stuffing machine (PRS Technologies, India) as firmly as possible to exclude air from the products. Stuffing in to casing was done firmly and carefully to exclude air inside the casing, which might discolor the meat mix and reduce shelf life of the semi dry sausage. After stuffing the mix into casing the open end was tied and a loop was formed so that sausages could be suspended on hot rods during smoking. Now the sausage stuffed in to casing, were held at 15°C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for two days to complete fermentation. The completion of fermentation was indicated by drop in pH of the product. Sausages were smoked at 20°C for 8 hours continuously, and further the temperature for last 1.5 hour was increased for last 1.5 hour to 45°C to improve flavour and colour. The smoked sausages were dried at 20oC and at relative humidity of 70% for 5 days. Sausage samples were packed in HDPE bags. Dried sausages were evaluated for quality characteristics and also stored at refrigerated temperature of 4°C for future study.

Evaluation of properties

Physico-chemical properties: (i) pH: pH of meat samples was determined by digital pH meter (Metzer model, India). The electrode of pH meter was calibrated with the help of two buffer solutions of known pH, 4 and 7. One g of finely ground sample was taken and blended in 10ml of distilled water in a test tube in a cyclo mixer (Yorco model). The extract was filtered through whattman No.1 filter paper. Electrode of pH meter was dipped in the filtrate and the digital device recorded reading of pH of the sample.

Moisture content: Moisture content of sausage samples was evaluated as given in Food Industry Manual [2]. 10 g raw buffalo meat was weighed into a flat-bottom, dried tared petridishes. The dishes and its content were placed in hot air oven (Yorco, India) thermo statistically controlled at 150 ± 5°C and heated until successive weighing showed no further loss. At the end, the dishes were removed from the oven and placed in a desiccators allowed to cool and weighed. Following formula was used for the estimation of percent moisture content of the samples.

TBA number: TBA number was measured by the method described [3]. Five ml of the extract was mixed with 5 ml of TBA reagent in a test tube. The test tube was kept in a water bath at 100°C for 30 min along with another test tube containing a blank of 5 ml of 10% TCA and 5 ml of TBA reagent. After cooling the tubes in running water for about 10 min., the absorbance was measured at 530 nm in a spectrophotometer (Digital spectrophotometer Model 310E, India) and reported as TBA number.

Microbiological characteristics: Total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mold count (Y & MC) by serial dilution method spread plate technique with nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar respectively [4].

Statistical analysis

Data obtained from experimental observations (n=6), were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) [5].

Results and Discussion

Physico-chemical Characteristics

pH: Table 1 presents the result of pH of buffalo meat semidry fermented sausage developed by incorporating incorporated edible offal (heart, liver, and kidney). Six samples (one controlled and five incorporated with offal) had pH values in the range of 5.10-5.16 just after preparation (fermentation, smoking & drying). Incorporation of edible offal did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the pH of semi dry sausage. Fermentation was carried out by mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz. Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantrum and Streptomyces griseus. The results of pH evaluation during refrigerated storage (4°C) also have been demonstrated in figure 1. The pH profile during storage was found to be decreasing due to activity of combined culture of LAB which utilized carbohydrate (dextrose and sucrose) added at the time of meat mix. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) decreased pH of semi dry fermented sausage (Table 2).

food-processing-technology-fermented-sausage

Figure 1: Evolution of pH of fermented sausage incorporated with different levels of offal during refrigerated storage (4ºC).

Sample code pH*/No. of days
0 day 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days 75 days
FC 5. 15 ± 0.34 5.05 ± 0.31 4.96 ± 0.37 4.91 ± 0.35 4.86 ± 0.34 4.80 ± 0.31
FH10K5 5.12 ± 0.37 5.08 ± 0.32 4.98 ± 0.35 4.88 ± 0.33 4.82 ± 0.37 4.78 ± 0.28
FH10L5 5.10 ± 0.36 5.04 ± 0.35 4.95 ± 0.38 4.86 ± 0.39 4.81 ± 0.37 4.76 ± 0.29
FH15K5 5.15 ± 0.34 5.10 ± 0.34 4.93 ± 0.35 4.88 ± 0.34 4.80 ± 0.34 4.75 ± 0.27
FH15L5 5.14 ± 0.37 5.07 ± 0.32 4.95 ± 0.36 4.89 ± 0.35 4.83 ± 0.35 4.77 ± 0.37
FH20L5 5.16 ± 0.35 5.10 ± 0.34 4.92 ± 0.34 4.87 ± 0.39 4.81 ± 0.32 4.76 ± 0.34

Table 1: Evaluation of pH* of buffalo meat fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offals during refrigerated storage (4°C).

SOURCE DF SS MSS F-VALUE, CAL F value table, 5%  LSD
Total 107 2.6083213 0.024377    
Replicates 2 0.0281185 0.014059 2.263970895 3.18           0.0416
FT 5 0.471824 0.009436 1.519562234 2.40
FS 5 2.0475713 0.0409514 65.94432516 2.40
Comb (T*S) 35 0.1409676 0.004028 0.648574155 1.60
Res/Error 60 0.03726 0.024357    

Table 2: Anova for pH.

The combined effects of offal treatment and storage also significantly (p<0.05) affected pH of SDFS. pH values were determined till the end of shelf life of sausage sample pH was found in the range of 4.75-4.80 at the end of storage (on 75th day)

Moisture content: Table 3 presents the result of moisture content evaluation of buffalo meat semidry fermented sausage produced incorporating edible offal (heart, liver, and kidney). Six samples (one controlled and five incorporated with offal) had moisture content in the range of 44.1-45.5 after preparation (fermentation, smoking & drying). Incorporation of edible offal did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the moisture content of semi dry fermented sausage.

Sample Code Moisture Content*(%)
  0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days 75 days
FC 44.2 ± 0.03 44.1 ± 0.26 43.2 ± 0.22 41.2 ± 0.25 40.2 ± 0.36 39.8 ± 0.21
FH10K5 44.1 ± 0.21 42.0 ± 0.25 41.1 ± 0.21 40.2 ± 0.30 41.5 ± 0.35 40.0 ± 0.23
FH10L5 45.5 ± 0.23 43.3 ± 0.24 41.2 ± 0.23 40.5 ± 0.31 40.1 ± 0.34 39.8 ± 0.43
FH15K5 45.3 ± 0.25 43.1 ± 0.23 41.3 ± 0.23 40.3 ± 0.32 39.8 ± 0.45 38.7.1 ± 0.42
FH15L5 43.1 ± 0.16 41.2 ± 0.26 40.0 ± 0.25 39.8 ± 0.31 38.7 ± 0.43 38..2 ± 0.41
FH20L5 44.1 ± 0.19 42.1 ± 0.27 40.1 ± 0.25 39.2 ± 0.34 38.9 ± 0.35 38.1 ± 0.43

Table 3: Evaluation of Moisture Content* of fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offals during refrigerated storage (4°C).

Fermentation was carried out by mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz. Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantrum and Streptomyces griseus. The results of moisture content evaluation during refrigerated storage also have been demonstrated in figure 2. The moisture content profile during storage found to be decreasing. Refrigerated storage significantly (p< 0.05) decreased pH of semi dry fermented sausage (Table 4).The combined effect of offal incorporation and storage also significantly (p<0.05) affected moisture content of SDFS moisture content values were determined till the end of shelf life of sausage sample moisture content was in the range of 38.1-39.8 at the end of storage (on 75th day).

food-processing-technology-moisture-content

Figure 2: Evaluation on moisture content of fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offal during refrigerated storage (4ºC).

SOURCE DF SS MSS F-VALUE, CAL F value table, 5% LSD
Total 107 396.68667 3.707352    
Replicates 2 20.13889 10.06694 0.661585 3.18      0.0814
FT 5 50.292222 58.00778 0.147832 2.40
FS 5 290.03889 0.725397 2766.166 2.40
comb(T*S) 35 25.38889 0.516111 214.4878 1.60
Res/Error 60 30.96667 0.707352    

Table 4: Anova table for moisture content.

TBA number: Table 5 presents the results of TBA number of buffalo meat semidry fermented sausage produced incorporating edible offal (heart, liver, and kidney). Six samples (one controlled and five incorporated with offal) had TBA number values in the range of 0.137-0.122 after preparation (fermentation, smoking & drying). Incorporation of edible offal significantly (p<0.05) affected the TBA number of semi dry sausage. The results of TBA number evaluation, during refrigerated storage also have been demonstrated in figure 3. The Refrigerated storage significantly (p< 0.05) increases TBA number of semi dry fermented sausage (Table 6).

food-processing-technology-Fermented-sausage

Figure 3: Evaluation of TBA Number of Fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offal during refrigerated storage (4ºC).

Sample code TBA Number*
0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days 75 days
FC 0.137 ± 0.31 0.140 ± 0.21 0.146 ± 0.27 0.155 ± 0.25 0.165 ± 0.310 0.215 ± 0.31
FH10K5 0.125 ± 0.32 0.129 ± 0.24 0.135 ± 0.28 0.145 ± 0.27 0.156 ± 0.32 0.213 ± 0.35
FH10L5 0.102 ± 0.31 0.110 ± 0.25 0.120 ± 0.29 0.130 ± 0.25 0.139 ± 0.34 0.0.211 ± 0.36
FH15K5 0.140 ± 0.34 0.145 ± 0.28 0.150 ± 0.27 0.159 ± 0.26 0.170 ± 0.37 0.0.230 ± 0.39
FH15L5 0.121 ± 0.35 0.126 ± 0.25 0.132 ± 0.25 0.140 ± 0.25 0.156 ± 0.38 0.0.223 ± 0.33
FH20L5 0.122 ± 0.32 0.128 ± 0.27 0.135 ± 0.26 0.146 ± 0.26 0.155 ± 0.31 0.0.228 ± 0.32

Table 5: Evaluation of TBA Number* of fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offals during refrigerated storage (4°C).

SOURCE DF SS MSS F-VALUE, CAL F value table, 5%    LSD
Total 107 0.1215359 4.09E-05    
Replicates 2 2.263457 0.10816 0.902081    3.18          0.0041
FT 5 0.0087374 0.002816 20362.1    2.40
FS 5 0.1109559 4.53E-05 530.2074     2.40
Comb (T*S) 35 0.0014953 5.31E-06 8.53521     1.60
Res/Error 60 0.0003473 2.09E-05    

Table 6: Anova table for TBA number.

It was reported that TBA numbers were highly correlated with sensory score of trained panelists for rancidity odour in meat and meat products [6]. These workers reported that threshold range of TBA number for detecting off odour in pork was approx. 0.5-1.0. While in cooked beef the values were in the range of 0.6-2.0. The values of TBA number even after 75 days were found in the safe limits (Table 5).

The combined effect of offal treatment and storage also significantly (p<0.05) affected TBA number of SDFS. TBA number values were determined till the end of shelf life of sausage samples. TBA number was found to in the range of 0.215-0.228 at the end of storage (on 75th day).

Microbial properties

Total plate count: Total plate count of Semi Dry Fermented Sausage (SDFS) incorporated with different levels of offal was enumerated and it was found that the there was no bacteria on plates containing nutrient -agar till 15 days during storage (4°C). However the countable colonies were observed on 30th day. Total plate count was found to be 2.15 in logcfu/g (Table 7), for controlled sample. Incorporation of edible offal did not significantly (p<0.05) affected the total plate count. The results of TPC evaluation, during refrigerated storage also has been demonstrated in figure 4. However, the storage treatment significantly increased the total plate count and also combined treatment of edible offal and storage significantly (p<0.05) affect the total plate count (Table 8). Storage study was conducted at 4°C and the total plate count including other microbiological characteristics were evaluated periodically after every 15 days, to establish the shelf life of semidry fermented sausage. On 60th day and 75th day the total plate count of the SDFS sample were respectively 3.01 and 4.12 for controlled sample. Similar result was also obtained for edible offal incorporated SDFS. It had also been reported that incipient of spoilage of meat occurred when aerobic mesophile count of meat samples reduced log cfu/g [7]. Fermentation has been identified a mechanism of probiotics [8], LAB along with other gut microbiota ferment various substrate like lactic biogenic amines and allergenic compound in to short chain fatty acid and other organic acids and gases [9,10]. LAB synthesizes enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants and bacteriocin [11]. With these properties intestinal LAB constitute an important mechanism of the metabolism and also detoxificate the foreign substance entering the body [12]. The health promoting effects of LAB are strain specific and result different mechanism to produce beneficial health impacts.

food-processing-technology-Fermented-sausage

Figure 4: Evaluation of TPC Number of Fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offal during refrigerated storage (4ºC).

Sample Code Evaluation of total plate count*
0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days 75days
FC ND ND 2.15 ± 0.32 2.58 ± 0.21 3.01 ± 0.34 4.12 ± 0.34
FH10K5 ND ND 2.31 ± 0.31 2.47 ± 0.24 3.04 ± 0.35 4.10 ± 0.35
FH10L5 ND ND 2.34 ± 0.34 2.49 ± 0.25 3.12 ± 0.36 4.21 ± 0.36
FH15K5 ND ND 2.37 ± 0.35 2.60 ± 0.29 3.11 ± 0.37 4.31 ± 0.37
FH15L5 ND ND 2.40 ± 0.36 2.62 ± 0.27 3.21 ± 0.34 4.42 ± 0.34
FH20L5 ND ND 2.41 ± 0.34 2.60 ± 0.24 3.15 ± 0.35 4.38 ± 0.35

Table 7: Evaluation of Total plate count* of fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offals during refrigerated storage (4°C).

SOURCE DF SS MSS F-VALUE, CAL F value table, 5%    LSD
Total 107 234.7174 0.052670    
Replicates 2 0.000502 0.000658 3.56246 3.18            0.1026
FT 5 442.3257 458.2713 0.007632 2.40
FS 5 1.082182 0.0402136 61245.31 2.40
Comb (T*S) 35 1.392368 0.023915 423.6121 1.60
Res/Error 60 0.067067 0.0050729    

Table 8: Anova table for TPC.

Yeast and mold count: Yeast and mold count of Semi Dry Fermented Sausage (SDFS) incorporated with different levels of offal was enumerated and it was found that there was no sign of yeast and mold count on plates containing PDA agar till 15th day storage (4°C). However the countable colonies were observed on 30 hr day. Yeast and mold count was found to be 2.18 in log cfu/g (Table 9), for controlled sample. Incorporation of edible offal did not significantly (p<0.05) affected the yeast and mold count of SDFS. The results of TPC evaluation, during refrigerated storage also has been demonstrated in figure 5. However, the storage treatment significantly increased the yeast and mold count and also combined treatment of edible offal and storage signifanctly (p<0.05) (Table 10) affected the yeast and mold count. The offal incorporated sample had yeast and mold count in the range of 2.18 in log cfu/g. Storage study was conducted at 4°C and the Yeast and mold count including other microbiological characteristics were evaluated periodically after 15 days, to establish the shelf life of semidry fermented sausage. On 60th day and 75th day the Yeast and mold count of the SDFS sample were respectively 3.00 and 4.02 for controlled sample. Similar result was also obtained fat edible offal incorporated SDFS. It was reported that when log cfu/g of yeast and mold count increased to 4, spoilage of food sample was started [12].

food-processing-technology-Fermented-sausage

Figure 5: Evaluation of Yeast & Mold Number of Fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offal during refrigerated storage (4ºC).

Sample Code Evaluation of yeast and mold count*
0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days 75 days
FC ND ND 2.18 ± 0.31 2.51 ± 0.34 3.00 ± 0.32 4.02 ± 0.32
FH10K5 ND ND 2.15 ± 0.32 2.50 ± 0.35 3.04 ± 0.34 3.98 ± 0.34
FH10L5 ND ND 2.15 ± 0.33 2.48 ± 0.35 3.08 ± 0.32 3.81 ± 0.32
FH15K5 ND ND 2.16 ± 0.35 2.45 ± 0.37 3.11 ± 0.37 3.67 ± 0.37
FH15L5 ND ND 2.17 ± 0.34 2.48 ± 0.35 3.12 ± 0.34 3.59 ± 0.34
FH20L5 ND ND 2.18 ± 0.36 2.49 ± 0.34 3.15 ± 0.33 3.72 ± 0.33

Table 9: Evaluation of Yeast and mold count* of fermented sausage, incorporated with different levels of offals during refrigerated storage (4°C).

SOURCE DF SS MSS F-VALUE, CAL F value Table, 5%             LSD
Total 107 356.3787 2.574436    
Replicates 2 0.000242 0.000126 8.534123 3.18             0.0563
FT 5 474.0697 36.81394 0.006743 2.40
FS 5 1.216586 0.267397 68735.21 2.40
Comb (T*S) 35 0.731031 0.013744 235.0431 1.60
Res/Error 60 0.061 0.000784    

Table 10: Anova table for Y&M.

Conclusion

Studies were conducted on development, quality evaluation and shelf life of buffalo meat Semi Dry Fermented Sausage (SDFS) incorporated with edible offals. Quality measuring characteristics were physico-chemical (pH, acidity, moisture content, and TBA number) microbiological characteristics (total plate count, yeast & mold count, sensory characteristics and instrumental colour and texture measurement. In instrumental texture measurement, texture profile analysis was conducted using compression platen and for instrumental colour measurement, hunter lab was used to evaluate the colour in three dimensional systems.

Studies on the effect of edible offal incorporation on quality of semi dry fermented sausage of buffalo meat was carried out. The results of the study showed that edible offal (heart, kidney and liver) up to 20%, 5% and 5 % respectively did not significantly (p<0.005) affect the quality of semi dry fermented sausage. The cost of edible by products is just one third cost of lean meat.

Edible by products, offal are rich in vitamins (vitamin B- complex) and they supply 37 to 97% Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). Incorporation of edible by products increased vitamin value of product. Texture of the products was very little affected as a result of offal incorporation.

The product developed was microbiologically safe under refrigerated condition up to 60 days. On 75th day the microbiological count (total plate count, yeast& mold count etc.) were exceeded beyond limit and indicated the spoilage condition.

Thiobarbituric number of the product was found in the range of 0.215-0.228 even after 75 days. TBA number, as reported by Tarlodgies et al. [6] are highly correlated with sensory score and experts suggests that TBA number for detecting off odour is in the range 0.6-2.0 for cooked beef and beef products. Sensory characteristics measured on the basis of sensory attributes namely colour, flavour, texture, taste and mouth feel and juiciness reported that products remained acceptable till 75.

The edible by products/ offal incorporation in semidry fermented sausage is recommended for economic reason and improvement in nutritional quality of the products. Importance of fermented sausage and other fermented meat products is that the use of LAB (lactic acid bacteria), which is, regarded as a major group of probiotic bacteria. The probiotic concept has been defined by Fuller [8] to mean “a live microbial feed/food supplements which beneficially affect the host (human/animal) by improving its intestine microbial balance”. LAB constitutes an integral part of the healthy astro intestinal (GP) microbiology and involved in the human metabolism. Fermentation has been identified a mechanism of probiotics [9], LAB along with other gut microbiota ferment various substrate like lactic biogenic amines and allergenic compound in to short chain fatty acid and other organic acids and gases [9]. LAB synthesizes enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants and bacteriocin. With these properties intestinal LAB constitute an important mechanism of the metabolism and also detoxificate the foreign substance entering the body [12]. The health promoting effects of LAB are strain specific and result different mechanism to produce beneficial health impacts.

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