Parvin Agha Mohammad Hasani*
Psychiatry Department, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Received date: July 16, 2013; Accepted date: August 28, 2013; Published date: September 05, 2013
Citation: Hasani PAM (2013) Effect of Life Enrichment and Advancement Program (LEAP) on Achievement Motivation of High School Girls with Opium Addicted Parents. J Psychol Psychother 3:124. doi: 10.4172/2161-0487.1000124
Copyright: © 2013 Hasani PAM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the Life Enrichment and Advancement Program (LEAP) on the achievement motivation of high school girls with drug-addicted fathers. Random sampling was used in this experimental study. The study included 342 high school girls whose drug-addicted fathers had been referred to detoxification centres in Rafsanjan city in (Kerman, Iran). Fifty-four girls were randomly selected. All girls lived with their parents. In the pre study period, participants completed the Achievement Motivation Test (ACMT) and were then randomly divided two groups of 27 participants each. Experimental group underwent six weekly 1.5-hour sessions of an educational programme based on LEAP, or motivational reconstruction held and then one week and one month after the completion of the course experimental and control groups took a post-study test. The data were analysed using a t-test and repeated-measures test. The results indicated that the mean achievement motivation score of the experimental group increased after the test compared with that before the test. In addition, there were significant differences between achievement motivation scores in the experimental and control groups following the test. The analysis showed that LEAP affects the achievement motivation of participants. Ultimately, we conclude that studying psychological disorders and issues relating to families dealing with drug addicts, particularly those of girls who are future mothers, is an important but often neglected aspect of public health.
Achievement motivation; Addiction; LEAP
Motivation is a self-related psychological structure and people show individual differences in various incentives through regulating their behaviour when conducting tasks . Murray defined achievement motivation as the individual’s desire and interest to be better than others . It is a relatively new concept in the world of motivation and it currently has a wide usage in the field of education. It is also a psychological structure that psychologists use to explain peoples’ progress. In predicting academic achievement, psychologists believe that studying variables such as achievement motivation is more important than studying intelligence and talent, because intelligence consists of fixed and relatively immutable structures, but achievement motivation can change through interventions and psychological treatments [3,4]. General intelligence predicts only 25% of the variance in achievement . It is important to find out what factors are involved in predicting academic success. Motivation is a mental structure that accounts for a large proportion of academic success. Up until now, little research has been conducted about factors affecting an individual’s motivation and progress. Given the importance of motivation in improving peoples’ lives, psychologists are of the opinion that teaching strategies to increase motivation, can make people more successful . Teaching achievement motivation, including the direct instruction of intellectual and practical strategies of achievement through goal setting, is among of these guidelines . However, like any other psychological structure, this one, which plays an essential role in advancing an individual’s aims, is also influenced by different conditions, and may change a person’s present and future life-course. “Achievement motivation can be defined as making good business or the orientation to the actions which is important to compel with the perfect standards”. The important issue in achievement motive is the progress according to the student’s performance targets. The achievements of the students about the course are usually determined by the scores in examinations and the passing notes in class. Motivation plays a special role in the learning process that it effects on learning level and then People act according to their. Achievement motivation indicates using all his time and energy to achieve the standard objectives set before . Therefore, motivation is an important issue is the psychology.
Several studies indicate that family plays a major role in a person’s health and illness status . Meanwhile, different research suggests that children who grow up in families with a drug-addicted father are exposed to many psychologically and biologically damaging factors. Such parents tend to neglect the physical and emotional needs of their children. In addition, these parents have difficulties in controlling their excitement and their mood swings can frighten children, leaving them in insecure, anxious and hyper-vigilant states of mind . Children of drug-addicted parents may have many physical and psychological problems . In this regard, researches have shown that families with alcoholic parent show higher levels of conflict compared with nonalcoholics.
Families of drug addicts are often fragmented and domestic conflicts, physical or emotional abuse, isolation, family stress, family problems (including unemployment, illness, marital strife and financial difficulties) and frequent relocation and transportation are common in these families . Children with drug-addicted parents are more prone to anxiety disorders.
Functional disorders–both psychological and psychiatric–may be seen among children of addicts. Addicted parents often lack the ability to provide structure or discipline in family life, but at the same time expect their children to undertake various tasks, more qualified than children with non-addicted parents. Children with drug-addicted parents are more likely to show symptoms of depression and anxiety than the children of non-addicts . Children of addicted parents have difficulties in building and maintaining social relationships. Children of alcoholics tend to have poorer academic achievement and higher dropout rates, school absenteeism and are more likely to leave school, be retained and referred to school psychologist. A study showed that 41% of drug-addicted parents reported that at least one of their children repeated a grade in school, 19% were involved in truancy and 30% had been suspended from school. In addition, 20% of parents reported the involvement of their children with the law and 17% reported their children using drugs or alcohol. Also, children of addicts do not perform as well in standardised tests, particularly in mathematics . The Life Enrichment and Advancement Program (LEAP) is a comprehensive and improved form of systematic motivational treatment. Systematic motivational treatment, analyses the individual’s goals and a core tenet of the treatment is that having a satisfactory life depends on having an adaptive motivational structure that leads to the selection and pursuance of appropriate goals. Achievement of these goals increases an individual’s life satisfaction. One of the goals of LEAP group therapy is to help clients to identify their most important life goals and find new joyful incentives. If clients are able to replace their negative goals with joyful positive goals, they will be more satisfied with their lives .
Participants and proposal
This study used a pre-test, post-test method with the control and Experimental groups. The population of this study consisted of 342 high school girls who had an opium-addicted father who had been referred to one of the drug rehabilitation centres in Rafsanjan city. Fathers were then asked if they had a daughter of high school age the daughters’ names were listed and using random sampling and a sample size calculation, 54 individuals were selected. 30 subjects with nonaddict father who have been matched with experimental and control group (age, socioeconomic situation, academic performance) enrolled in study. The control group received no special training, whereas the experimental group received LEAP based training. Several studies have shown that girls are more vulnerable than boys . Women are two times more likely than men and girls are seven times more likely than boys to be depressed. Also, they, nine times more likely to have eating disorders than boys and men [16,17]. Achievement motivation is an important psychological structure that can affect by some variables. Parent’s level of education, parental expectations, and parental support for their children are family factors that seem to extent some influence on adolescent’s achievement motivation . For these reasons, the study was performed on girls.
Achievement motivation test (ACMT): This test is based on the method of sentence completion, was developed by V. P. Bhargava and translated to Persian by Karami . The test has 50 incomplete sentences. The respondent must complete the sentence provided with one of the answer sentences given. Test-retest reliability is 0.91 and validity index of this test is 0.85. The score on the scale range from above 23, which mean high achievement motivation, and from below 11, which mean low achievement motivation. This version of the questionnaire has no subscale.
Educational kit: LEAP was first designed to help people control their alcohol abuse problems by improving the quality of their life and increasing their happiness. It analyses the nature of people’s goals and activities and how people can increase their chances of achieving their goals. LEAP aims to minimise stress in peoples and maximise their happiness. In other words, this technique helps people to reduce their need to drink alcohol by ‘filling in the gaps’ in other areas of their lives. Due to the incentive structure of the program, it can also be used in non-addicts. This program teaches principles that are applicable to everyone.At the same time, the programme is based on the very fact that people are different from each other, and each person has his or her own needs. Readers will have a chance to evaluate their lifestyles in light of the LEAP principles. The purpose of LEAP is to focus on selected targets. In counselling sessions, the incentive structure of each individual is evaluated and then the relationship between this and the motivational structure is explained, with emphasis on achieving both short- and long-term goals. Some people do not have a plan or a purpose in life, or if they do have a goal, they do not know about it. The aim of LEAP is to give a special incentive for the person to try and obtain their goals. With a clear goal, there exists an incentive that is what people expect to make positive changes in emotions. However, for various reasons, people do not attempt to obtain all of the incentives that enable them to change their life. In LEAP-based treatment, large goals are transformed into several smaller goals so that the motivation to achieve a goal over time is preserved.
The manual includes several parts:
1. It presents the rationale for the programme.
2. It discusses the importance of temporary vs. enduring positive and negative feelings; how these feelings are related to decisions about drinking; and how people can change bad feelings into good ones.
3. It discusses how people can develop a more enjoyable lifestyle, in both the short-term and the long-term.
Four modules are included. The modules help people to plan ways to increase their chances of achieving their goals, and to do so with minimal stress and maximum happiness. Each module includes exercises to do. Some of them are based on results from tests that were taken earlier. There are also tasks that will need to be completed as each module is studied and before going on to the next module. Each person can study this manual either alone or as part of a workshop .
Phases of implementing the test: The pre-test related to the achievement motivation questionnaire simultaneously taken by participants, under equal and normal conditions. After pre-test, participants were randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). The training course for the experimental group consisted of six weekly 1.5-hour group sessions in the workshops of the Moradi Hospital counselling centre, which is affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. During the training course, individuals became familiar with motivational strategies, providing the necessary explanations for the theory section and completed the practices which were part of the practical section. One week and one month after completing the training course, the post-test, which related to the achievement motivation questionnaire, was simultaneously taken from the two groups under equal conditions. Data was coded after collection and analysed using SPSS software version 16. To study the research hypothesis, repeated-measures and t-tests were used.
|Pre-test Mean(SD)||Post-test Mean(SD)||Follow-up Mean(SD)||F Greenhouse-Geisser & Huynh-Feldt||P Value of Pre-test and post-test||P value of post-test and follow-up|
|Achievement Motivation||17.74(2.98)||20.22(3.22)||20.14(3.194)||68.80 & 65.369||<0.001||0.646|
By observing the table 1, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test of the experimental group in achievement motivation, but no significant difference observed between post-test and the follow-up in the mentioned points.
Table 1: Compare of pre-test, post-test and follow-up in experimental group.
|Mean(SD)||Levene's Test||t-test||95% CI|
|Exp group||Cont group||F||sig||t||df||sig||lower||upper|
Table 2: Compare of Achievement motivation in pre-test and post-test in experimental and control group.
Participants were 54 individuals with an average age of 17.07 ± 0.82. Difference of achievement motivation scores in the group with addicted and non-addicted fathers was significant (P<0.01). Before the intervention, three people (11.1%) in the experimental group had low achievement motivation scores. After the educational intervention, this number had decreased to one. In addition, before intervention, there were no participants with a high level of motivation in the experimental group but after training; this number had increased to nine. Analysis of the data using the repeated-measures test showed that the LEAP-based training influenced achievement motivation in the experimental group and it had significantly increased in the post-test (F=94.2, P<0.001). Comparison of achievement motivation scores in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up (Table 1) in the experimental group showed that there was a significant difference between the scores before and after the intervention (P <0.001). In addition, data analysis using a t-test (Table 2) showed that achievement motivation in the control and experimental group in the last test was significantly different (P =0.006). Also in this study, academic performance evaluated. Scores of mathematics (P=0.043) and Persian or “Farsi” (The official language of Iran) (P=0.03) lessons compared between experimental and control group in pre-test and post-test that difference was significance.
Kaplan and Maddux  argues that the illness of a family member affects the family system. The current study is among few studies conducted on the families of drug dependants. As stated previously, drug abuse, which is a serious, pervasive and greatly expanding problem, has a harmful effect on the economic and social conditions of society and individuals. The main hypothesis of the research - that LEAP-based education has a positive effect on the achievement motivation of girls with drug-addicted fathers - was studied and ultimately confirmed. The results of this study are consistent with those of the study by Attar and Seif  about the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies of the Metacognitive study and Lam’s study  on the effects of holding sports competitions on the achievement motivation of students. Furthermore, in terms of the study of the effectiveness of LEAP, the results of the current study are consistent with those of Abdolhosseini’s  study about the effectiveness of the aforementioned program and rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) in improving drug addiction and therapeutic indicators in drug abusing women. It is also consistent with Ashkani’s  study of the effectiveness of the aforementioned program on increasing the marital satisfaction of war veterans’ spouses. In addition, the results of the study by Vafaee  showed that a training program based on LEAP and Reality Therapy (RT) was associated with improved indices of addiction. She showed that LEAP increases happiness indices, reduces feelings of a lack of control, increases confidence, reducing drug intake, increases life satisfaction and is more effective than placebo controls. She states that the LEAP group has a higher recovery index than the RT group. Although LEAP-based treatment is relatively difficult, the effect of the therapy is expected to be long lasting because of the fact that LEAP focuses on peoples’ goals and driving forces or motives. Discouraged people usually do not see any positivity in their lives to try for, and this discouragement underlies many disorders. As was noted, the therapeutic goal of LEAP is to help clients identify, select and pursue proper goals. If clients are able to replace their negative goals with joyful goals, they will be more satisfied with their lives and further satisfaction will be coupled with further success. Finally, it could be said that further studies on the families of drug dependants are among the essential matters of society, as children from these families suffer most from physical and psychological damages. It is recommended that similar studies be conducted on boys and on other psychological variables.