Received Date: March 30, 2012; Accepted Date: April 20, 2012; Published Date: April 26, 2012
Citation: Liao DJ, Wang HD, Ye JQ, Jiang XD, Zeng W, et al. (2012) Egg Production of Paramphistomata in Dairy Cattle. J Bacteriol Parasitol 3:136. doi: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000136
Copyright: © 2012 Liao DJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology
Paramphistomatata; Egg output; Dairy cattle
Paramphistomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases of ruminants, including cattle, buffalo, yak, goat, sheep deer etc. . While some studies suggest that paramphistomiasis may be a relatively unimportant parasite for dairy cattle [2,3], but it may become a more serious disease in other settings . For example, the infective rate of paramphistomata disease was 84.24% in dairy cattle in Hongya, Sichuan, China . The host may die as a result of the motility of the paramphistomata larva which can lead to damage to the host’s liver or other organs. Unfortunately, it is difficult to cure infected dairy cattle because of medicinal issues, such as the curative level, side-effects etc. .
Livestock and poultry parasitic diseases are usually diagnosed using egg counts and worm numbers in infected animals. The latter is rarely used because of the requirement to slaughter the animal, with an obvious cost impact. Therefore, the egg count technique becomes the common method in monitoring and control of parasitic disease . For example, Fanyao et al.  thought when the EPG (numbers of eggs in one gram feces) value of nemotode’s or hepatica’s eggs exceeds 1000 or 300 respectively, then infected goats or sheep should be treated, respectively. Further, the egg output for many parasites, such as Schistosoma japonicum, Fashiola hepatica, Hamonchus, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia, Gaigeria, Bunostomum, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Cooperia and Nematodirus [9,10], etc., are studied for not only diagnosis, but also other biological characteristics. Highly relevant here is that the egg output of paramphistomata worms has not been reported.
Six dairy cows, four Chinese Holstein and two Simental cows were confirmed to be infected with paramphistomiasis using the method of examining eggs in the feces. Their ages were 4.1, 6.4, 6.8, 7.3, 7.8, 9.1 years, respectively. For collection of their feces, animals were normally fed all alone during the test period.
Paramphistomata species in dairy cattle
The paramphistomata samples were collected from autopsied cows. Samples were randomly selected to be mounted as slide samples using established methods [8,10]. Morphological analysis was performed to identify paramphistomata species by reference to standard texts [10-12].
Egg count of paramphistomata
Before dairy cattle were slaughtered, its feces was fully collected and mixed to obtain the EPG value of paramphistomatata eggs using the method described by [13,14] and total egg amount in fecal sample of a dairy cattle per day by the following formula. It was repeated in 3 successive days:
Total eggs = EPG × Feces quantity (g)/d
Autopsy was used to collect essentially complete paramphistomata worm samples from the rumen, omasum, rectum and cecum of the dairy cattle completely and the worms were counted. Analysis was repeated on three successive days.
Egg output was calculated a paramphistomata worm per day by the following formula;
371 slide samples of the paramphistomatata samples from the autopsied cows were classified in our laboratory. The results from morphological analysis were that there were ten species relegating to four genus, Paramphistomum (P. cervi, P. gotoi and P. gracile), Calicophoron (C. skrjabini and C. calicophorum), Ceylonocotyle (C. longicoelium, C. streptocoelium, C. dicranocoelium and C. scoliocoelium) and Homalogaster (H. paloniae), two families, Paramphistomatidae and Gastrodiscidae (Figure 1).
Egg output of Paramphistomata
1660, 1180, 5047, 3115, 4463 and 132 paramphistomata worms were collected from the dairy cattle, respectively. Total egg numbers were 1.8×106, 4.1×106, 1.8×107, 9.0×106, 1.5×107 and 4.3×105 in their feces per day. The results showed that the egg output of paramphistomata in these dairy cattle were 1084, 3458, 3524, 2907, 3360 and 3258 per worm per day, respectively. Subsequently, average of egg output was 2932 eggs/worm/day (Table 1).
|No.||Breed||EPG ()||Quantity of feces(g)/d||Total eggs/d||Worms||Eggs/Worm/d|
Table 1: Egg output of paramphistomata in dairy cattle.
Species of Paramphistomata in dairy cattle at Hongya
We investigated the species of paramphistomatata of cattle and buffalo at Hongya in1983. The results were that there were seven species, Fischoederius explanatus, Carmyerius synethes, Ceylonocotylev cheni, C. sinuocoelium, Paramphistomum gotoi and Cotylophoron cotylophorum, relegating to five genus(Fischoederius, Carmyerius, Ceylonocotylev, Paramphistomum and Cotylophoron), two families (Paramphistomatidae and Gastrothylacidae) [15,16]. Interestingly, gastrodisciasis is a normal consequence of paramphistomiasis in cattle and buffalo in this region, but this did not appear in the cattle included in this investigation. It, therefore, remains unclear whether gastrodisciasis can not invade into dairy cattle or that the incidence has subsided for reasons unknown.
Egg output of Paramphistomata in dairy cattle
Among six anatomized dairy cattle, egg outputs of paramphistomata in dairy cattle were estimated to be 1084, 3458, 3524, 2907, 3360 and 3258 eggs/worm/day. This demonstrates that there was a great difference in the level of egg production, between 2907-3524 and 1084. The dairy cattle examined did not exhibit any clinical signs of illness prior to slaughter. Hence, the large difference in egg output might be not due to disease in the cow with 1084 eggs influencing the paramphistomata worms laying eggs. Other parasites, such as Ascaris suum, exhibit a ten-fold variance in egg production . Therefore, the near three fold variance in egg output of paramphistomata may be a natural characteristic.