Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease characterized by the ectopic presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, glands, and stroma, outside the uterine cavity .The disease most often affects the ovaries (up to 88% of all cases), uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, rectum, cervical-vaginal region, and urinary tract. Urinary tract involvement is rare accounting for around 1-2% of all cases, of which 84%are found in the bladder. However, endometriosis can be encountered in other abdominal organs such as the liver, pancreas, intestinal tract, spleen, gallbladder, the abdominal wall, and even the navel. Endometriosis is classified depending on the number, size, and superficial and/or deep location of endometrial implants, plaques, endometriomas, and/or adhesions, as follows: stage I (minimal, 1-5 points), stage II (mild, 6-15 points), stage III (moderate, 16-40 points), and stage IV (severe, >40 points), following the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification for Endometriosis . Exerting a gross classification, endometriotic lesions could be divided into superficial peritoneal endometriosis, deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and ovarian (cystic) endometriosis. Approximately 10% of women in reproductive age are estimated to be affected by this disease and its symptoms.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access rises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014