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The study of immobilization techniques in the formation of covalent bonds between the enzyme and the support matrix. There are two types of characters to select the type of reaction in which the given protein can be immobilized.They are
1.The binding reaction must be performed under conditions that do not cause loss of enzymatic activity.
2.The active site of the enzyme must be unaffected by the reagents used. The covalent binding method is based on the binding of enzymes and water insoluble carriers by covalent bonds
Related Journals of Covalent Binding
Cell Biology, Enzyme Engineering,Transcriptomics Journal, Advancements in Gentic Engineering, Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP), Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC), Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC), Journal of Experimental Food Chemistry.
Protein ligand interactions are fundamental to almost all processes accuring in living arganisms. Ligand mediated signal transmission via complementray is essential to all life processes. These chemical interactions comprise biological recognition at the molecular level.
Accurate methods of computing the affinity of a small molecule with a protein are needed to speed the discovery of new medications and biological probes.
Related Journals of Protein Ligand
Molecular and Genetic Medicine Journals, Next Generation: Sequencing & Applications, Ligand and Channel Research, Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy, Gene Technology, Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions, Journal of Proteins and Proteomics, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology.
Current progress in computational structure based protein design is reviewed in the areas of methodology and applications. Applications include new approaches and successes in the design of specificity for protein folding,binding affinity and in the application of design technology to study and alter enzyme catalysis. Computational protein design continues to mature and advance.
Aprotein design cycle involving cycling between theory and experiment has led to recent advances in rational protein design.A reductionist approach in which protein positions are classified by their local environments has aided development of an appropriate energy expression.
Related Journals of Computation Protein Design
Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation Journal, Bioprocessing & Biotechniques Journals, Current Topics in Peptide and Protein Research, Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics, Second Messengers and Phosphoproteins, Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, Protein & Cell, Protein Engineering.
A catalyst is a chemical which increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by any reaction. Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions.They are some what similar to other chemical catalysts in many ways :
1.In a chemical reaction both the enzymes and chemical catalysts affect the rate but not the equilibrium constant.
2.Both the catalysts enzymes and chemical will increase the rate of reaction in both directions, forward and reverse.The principle of catalysis follows that catalysts can’t change the equilibrium of reaction.
Related Journals of Enzyme Catalyst
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology Journal, Proteomics & Bioinformatics Journals, Transcriptomics Journal, Hereditary Genetics: Current Research, Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Journal of Chemical Education, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, Topics in Catalysis, ACS Catalysis.
Bioprocess is the alteration or application of renewable materials to generate value added products. It includes discovery,research,development and the manufacturing and commercialization of products.
Areas of interest for bioprocess are:
1.conversion of biomass into products.
3.Food and beverages.
4.Fermentation and product separation technologies.
5.Processing,handling and storage of agricultural products.
6.Industrial enzymatic reactions.
7. Application of sensor and computer technologies for the development of process control systems.
8.Modeling of biological materials.
9.Bioremediation for environmental preservation.
Related Journals of Bioprocess
Bioprocessing and Biotechniques, Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Journal of Food Processing & Technology, Journal of Experimental Food Chemistry, Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Food and Bioprocess Technology.
Enzymes are biological molecules that act as catalysts .In previous years enzymes are not used but today the use of enzymes is with out limits.They cut and paste products such as nutrients.They speed up all biological processes.They are also the workhorses of the body.Enzymes act as engineers in the body to transfer one substance to another substance.They can cut the biological materials into smaller pieces and again paste them together.
Related Journals of Enzymes
Gene Technology, Advancements in Genetic Engineering, Proteomics & Bioinformatics Journal, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Cell Science & Therapy, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme ,Enzymes and Proteins.
Enzyme engineering is the application of modifying an enzymes structure.The development of last few years is the application of genetic engineering techniques to enzyme technology.There are number of properties which may be improved or altered by genetic engineering including the yield and kinetics of the enzyme.Enzymes from dangerous microorganisms and from slow growing or limited plant or animal tissue may be cloned into safe high production microorganisms.
Related Journals of Enzyme Engineering
Transcriptomics Journal, Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics Journal, Jacobs Journal of Enzymology and Enzyme Engineering, Tissue Science & Engineering, Molecular Cloning & Genetic Recombination, Enzyme Directory, Bioengineering, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Molecular Biology.
Metabolic engineering has the potential to produce from simple,readily available, inexpensive starting materials a large number of chemicals that are currently derived from nonrenewable resources or limited natural resources.It was used for the production of chemicals from renewable resources.These technologies include gene expression, artificial evolution, protein design and engineering,high throughput screening,mutagenesis and selection ,fermentation development and product recovery.
Metabolic engineering has the potential to produce from simple, readily available, inexpensive starting materials a large number of chemicals that are currently derived from nonrenewable resources or limited natural resources. Microbial production of natural products has been achieved by transferring product-specific enzymes or entire metabolic pathways from rare or genetically intractable organisms to those that can be readily engineered, and production of unnatural specialty chemicals, bulk chemicals, and fuels has been enabled by combining enzymes or pathways from different hosts into a single microorganism and by engineering enzymes to have new function. Whereas existing production routes use well-known, safe, industrial microorganisms, future production schemes may include designer cells that are tailor-made for the desired chemical and production process. In any future, metabolic engineering will soon rival and potentially eclipse synthetic organic chemistry.
Related Journals of Metabolic Pathway Engineering
Immunology , Genetic Disorders & Genetic Reports, Hereditary Genetics: Current Research, Biological Systems : Open Access, Metabolic Engineering, Enzymes, Coenzymes & Metabolic Pathways, Metabolic Engineering Communications.
Protein engineering strategies aimed at constructing enzymes with improved activities, specificities and stabilities greatly benefit from in silico methods.Computational methods can be principally grouped into three main categories. They are bioinformatics, molecular modeling and de novo design.Computational enzyme design is a very promising area of research. The current computational design tools suffer from a serious limitation.
Protein engineering strategies aimed at constructing enzymes with novel or improved activities, specificities, and stabilities greatly benefit from in silico methods. Computational methods can be principally grouped into three main categories:bioinformatics; molecular modelling; and de novo design.Particularly de novo protein design is experiencing rapid development, resulting in more robust and reliable predictions.A recent trend in the field is to combine several computational approaches in an interactive manner and to complement them with structural analysis and directed evolution. A detailed investigation of designed catalysts provides valuable information on the structural basis of molecular recognition,biochemical catalysis, and natural protein evolution.
Related Journals of Insilico Design of Enzymes
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics Journal, Single Cell Biology journals, Genomic Medicine journals, Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering, Journal of Cheminformatics, Current Synthetic and Systems Biology, Clinical & Medical Genomics, Chemical Biology and Drug Design, Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, Current Pharmaceutical Design, International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design.
The rate at which the enzyme works is called the study of enzyme kinetics. In chemical kinetics the most fascinating area of study is enzyme catalysis.The enzyme catalysis usually results in a very large increase in reaction rate and high specificity. In enzyme kinetics the substrate concentration will increase in definitely and it doesn’t increase the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction beyond a certain point.
In the enzymesubstrate complex, the substrate molecule binds to a very specific region of the enzyme molecule called the active site. These active sites are highly selective for a specific substrate molecule with which the enzyme binds. This is why enzymes are such highly specific catalysts, catalyzing a single reaction, or a set of closely related reactions. There are two proposed models to explain the specificity of the interaction between the substrate molecule and the active site of an enzyme.
Related Journals of Enzyme Kinetics
Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Tissue Science & EngineeringJournal,Proteomics & Bioinformatics Journals, Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, Review of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, International Edition.
Proteins control all biological systems in a cell and many proteins perform their functions independently. The majority of proteins interact with others for proper biological activity. The biological system in a cell include gene expression, cell growth, proliferation, nutrient uptake, morphology, motility, intercellular communication and apoptosis. The cells which involve are not equal and many proteins are expressed in a cell type dependent manner.
Proteins are the workhorses that facilitate most biological processes in a cell, including gene expression, cell growth, proliferation, nutrient uptake, morphology, motility, intercellular communication and apoptosis. But cells respond to a myriad of stimuli, and therefore protein expression is a dynamic process; the proteins that are used to complete specific tasks may not always be expressed or activated. Additionally, all cells are not equal, and many proteins are expressed in a cell type-dependent manner.These basic characteristics of proteins suggest a complexity that can be difficult to investigate, especially when trying to understand protein function in the proper biological context.
Related Journals of Protein Interaction
Enzyme Engineering is associated with our international conference "International Conference on Enzyme Engineering" (Protein Engineering-2015) during october 26-28, 2015 chicago, USA with a theme "Protein Engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins and it research takes place into the understanding of folding and recognition for protein design principles.
Enzymes are known as biocatalysts that are unique in their function because of their vast diversity and structural complexity. Enzyme Engineering journal deals with the applications of engineering tools to modify the structure of the enzymes and their functions which are required for various industrial processes.
This Enzyme Engineering Journal includes wide range of fields such as drug resistance, enzyme characterization, enzyme kinetics, protein interaction.
Enzyme Engineering Journal is a peer reviewed scientific journal known for rapid dissemination of high-quality research. This Enzyme Engineering Journal with high impact factor offers an open access platform to the authors in academia and industry to publish their novel research. It serves the International Scientific Community with its standard research publications.
The journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality peer review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Enzyme Engineering journal or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.
Enzyme Engineering is a scholarly Open Access journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any subscriptions to researchers worldwide.
Enzyme inhibition is referd as the decrease of related enzyme processes. There are two conditions they are:
1.In production of Enzyme inhibition is known as the reduction of the enzyme production.
2.In activity of Enzyme inhibition is known as the decrease of enzyme’s activity .
This is caused by a substance called enzyme inhibitor. Enzyme inhibitors are molecules that interact in some way with the enzyme to prevent it from working in the normal manner.
Related Journals of Enzyme Inhibition
The metabolic enzyme expression remodeling is now widely known as hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in brest cancer. In this it shows the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.
Enzymes are an important staple in the biopharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical fields. However, expression of these workhorse proteins comes with a number of problems as well. Bacterial hosts can produce large quantities of these proteins, but struggle when tasked with expression of very large proteins or proteins that require post-translational modifications. Fungal expression systems have the potential to produce toxins during the expression cycle, which can make their product unusable. Both types of hosts must undergo the extreme physiological impacts of high-level expression of the genes needed to create over-production.
Related Journals of Enzyme Expression
Bioengineering & Biomedical science Journals, Biomedical Sciences Journals, Bioprocessing & Biotechniques Journals, Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy, Journals Proteomics, Herediatary Genetics : Current Research, Expressions Maghrebines.
The current demands of the world’s biotechnological industries in enzyme productivity and development of novel techniques for increasing there shelf life.Enzyme immobilization provides an excellent base for increasing availability of enzyme to the substrate with greater turn over over a considerable period of time.Nowadays immobilized enzymes are preferred over their free counterpart due to their prolonged availability that curtails redundant downstream and purification processes.
“The process whereby the movement of enzymes, cells, organelles, etc. in space is completely or severely restricted usually resulting in a water-insoluble form of the enzyme.” Immobilized enzymes are also sometimes referred to as sound, insolubilized, supported or matrix-linked enzymes.
Related Journals of Enzyme Immobilisation
Advancements in Genetic Engineering Journal, Cloning & Transgenesis, Current Synthetic and Systems Biology, Biological Systems, Enzyme Engineeringwww.omicsonline.org/biochemistry-journals.php, Enzyme immobilization, Journal of Thermodynamic Catalysis, PLOS ONE: Enzyme immobilization, Advances in Enzyme Regulation, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology.
Enzyme purification is processed to obtain pure biological catalyst to study their nature in basic sciences,and develop them for use in applied sciences and industries.
In enzyme purification electrodecantation is one of the method. It has applied to the initial fractionation from crude material of pig kidney and sheep testicular. The electrodecantation of pig kidney and sheep testicular extract was carried out. A six to ten fold increase in specific activity could be obtained with good recoveries after a single cycle of electrodecantation.
Enzyme Purification Techniques –Large Scale
• Salting out
• Gel-Filtration Chromatography
• Ion-Exchange Chromatography
• Affinity Chromatography
• Gel electrophoresis
Related Journals of Enzyme Purification
Gene Technology, Advancements inGenetic Engineering, Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials, Enzyme Engineering, Proteomics & Enzymology, Protein Expression and Purification, Methods in Enzymology, Enzymology, Proteins & purification.
Cross linked enzyme aggregates have emerged as interesting biocatalyst design for immobilization. The new generation enzyme biocatalysts in addition to exhibiting good mechanical stability can be highly active since they do not include large amounts of foreign particulate nonenzymatic material and may have increased stability.
Cross linked enzyme aggregates have emerged as interesting biocatalysts design for immobilization. Precipitation can be used as purification of enzymes.This technique may be implement in a single or reduced operation.
Immobilization of enzymes has been achieved by intermolecular cross-linking of the protein, either to other protein molecules or to functional groups on an insoluble support matrix.. Cross-linking an enzyme to itself is both expensive and insufficient, as some of the protein material will inevitably be acting mainly as a support. This will result in relatively low enzymatic activity. Generally, cross-linking is best used in conjunction with one of the other methods. It is used mostly as a means of stabilizing adsorbed enzymes and also for preventing leakage from polyacrylamide gels.
Related Journals of Cross Linking
Genetic Disorders & Genetic Reports, Hereditary Genetics: Current Research Journals, Gene Technology, Biological Systems : Open Access, Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, The European Journal of Development Research, Food Technology and Biotechnology, Journal of nanobiotechnology, Computational and structural biotechnology journal, Biotechnology and Biochemistry Journal.
The ionic bonding is derived from the localization function (ELF) topology in the alkali halide family. This approach establishes a relationship between ELF topological characteristics and basic ionic and crystal properties. The deeply rooted concepts in ionic bonding can be derived from a analysis of electron pairing. The principles of covalent bonding are also applicable to ionic bonding
Conventional solids are prepared from building blocks that are conceptually no larger than hundred atoms. While van der waals and dipole-dipole interactions also influence the formation of these materials, stronger interactions, referred to as chemical bonds.
An active site is the part of an enzyme that directly binds to a substrate and carries a reaction. It contains catalytic groups which are amino acids that promote formation and degradation of bonds. By forming and breaking these bonds, enzyme and substrate interaction promotes the formation of the transition state structure. Enzymes help a reaction by stabilizing the transition state intermediate. This is accomplished by lowering the energy barrier or activation energy- the energy that is required to promote the formation of transition state intermediate.
Related Journals of Ionic Bonding
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology Journal, Proteomics & Bioinformatics Journals, Transcriptomics Journal, Structure and Bonding, Cell & Developmental Biology, Cellular & Molecular Biology, Structural Survey , Structural Engineering and Mechanics.
Many genetic manipulations are limited by difficulty in obtaining adequate levels of protein expression. Bioinformatic and experimental studies have identified nucleotide sequence features that may increase expression.It is difficult to assess the relative influence of these features.
Glycation of proteins, nucleotides and basic phospholipids by glyoxal and methylgliyoxal-physiological subtrates of glyoxalase 1- is potentially damaging to the proteome , genome and lipidome.
Related Journals of Protein Nucleotide
Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Gene Technology Journal, Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy, Protein Science, Current Protein & Peptide Science, Protein & Peptide Letters, Proteins and Proteomics, Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology.
Many protein-protein interactions are mediated by peptide recognition modules, compact domains that bind to short peptides and play a critical role ina wide array of biological processes.Recent experimental protein interaction data provide us with an opportunity to examine whether we may explain or even predict their interactions by computational sequence analysis.
The design of protein-peptide interactions has a wide array of practical applications and also reveals insight into the basis for molecular recognition.
The simplest method for identifying the binding partners of a peptide is to use it as bait in an affinity pull-down experiment, and then detect its binding proteins directly. Pull-down assays are useful both for confirming the protein-protein interactions that were predicted using other techniques (e.g., co-immunoprecipitation) and also as initial screening tools to identify novel protein-protein interactions. Synthetic peptides are commonly used to verify suspected protein-protein interactions by disrupting the binding competitively. Biotinylated peptides, which contain a specific functional domain, and their corresponding control native peptides are immobilized to avidin-conjugated resins. Samples are incubated with the resins. Then wash the resins to remove any unbound proteins. The bound proteins are eluted and analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The amount of modified versus unmodified bound peptide can then be compared to identify specific functions.
Related Journals of Protein Peptide Interactions
Bioengineering & Biomedical science Journals, Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Cell Science & Therapy, Cellar & Molecular Biology, Protein Engineering Design and Selection, Advances in Protein Chemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins.
The immense progress achieved in protein-protein complex structures and in the field of protein interaction modelling .Proteins,nucleic acids and small molecules form a dense network of molecular interactions in a cell. Molecules are nodes of this network and the interactions between them are edges.The architecture of molecular networks can reveal important principles of cellular organization and function .Similarly to the way that .Proteins structure tells us about the function and organization of a protein.
Related Journals of Protein-Protein Complexes
Cloning & Transgenesis, Current Synthetic and Systems Biology, Gene Technology, Biological Systems : Open Access, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, Current Protein and Peptide Science, Current Proteomics, Current Protocols in Protein Science.
*2016 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2014 and 2015 with the number of times they are cited in 2016 based on Google Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2014 and 2015, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2016 then, journal impact factor = Y/X